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2010 ADA Standards for Accessible Design Pocket Guide

Pocket Guide to the

2010 ADA Standards for Accessible Design

as Adopted by DOJ & DOT

With Access Board Notes, Selected Sections from the ADA Regulations for Titles II and III, Safe Harbor References, and links to “more info…” at Corada.com

Version 3.0

May 5, 2015

COMPILED and © 2015 by

EVAN TERRY ASSOCIATES, LLC

BIRMINGHAM, ALABAMA

(voice) (205) 972-9100

(TTY) (205) 972-9112

www.EvanTerry.com

ETA@EvanTerry.com

About the International Code Council

The International Code Council is a member-focused association. It is dedicated to developing model codes and standards used in the design, build and compliance process to construct safe, sustainable, affordable and resilient structures. Most U.S. communities and many global markets choose the International Codes. ICC Evaluation Service (ICC-ES) is the industry leader in performing technical evaluations for code compliance fostering safe and sustainable design and construction.

Headquarters: 500 New Jersey Avenue, NW, 6th Floor, Washington, DC 20001-2070

Regional Offices: Eastern Regional Office (BIR); Central Regional Office (CH); Western Regional Office (LA)

888-ICC-SAFE (888-422-7233)

www.iccsafe.org

About Evan Terry Associates, LLC

Evan Terry Associates (ETA) has been teaching seminars, publishing Pocket Guides and other books, and creating websites on the ADA, other accessibility standards, and universal design for over 24 years.  From architects with a history of providing trusted reference materials on access requirements, this book has been written for design professionals, contractors, building officials, facility managers, and others who need to understand their facility-related obligations under the ADA.

No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written authorization from Evan Terry Associates, LLC.  The contents of this publication are provided for informational purposes only, may not address the unique facts and circumstances of your specific situation, and do not constitute recommendations, architectural, or legal advice of any kind.  While ETA endeavors to communicate the information in these materials as timely and accurately as possible, ETA makes no claims, promises, or guarantees about the accuracy, completeness, or adequacy of any information contained herein for the unique purposes of any readers and expressly disclaims liability for any errors and omissions.  ETA accepts no liability for the consequences of any actions taken on the basis of the information provided.  By utilizing these materials, you assume responsibility for any loss, damage, or liability resulting from such use.

How to Use This PDF Pocket Guide

The 2010 ADA Standards for Accessible Design are based on the Access Board’s July 23, 2004, ADA/ABA Accessibility Guidelines as amended by the Board on August 5, 2005 then adopted by the Department of Justice on July 26 / September 15, 2010 and subsequently updated as described below. This new Standard replaces the 1991 ADA Standards.

This Pocket Guide includes selected sections from the revised Title II and Title III regulations that are applicable to new construction and alterations that we at ETA believe are typically under the control or responsibility of a design professional, contractor, or facility manager. These selected sections are incorporated throughout this Pocket Guide and are highlighted in gray. Some definitions from Title II and Title III regulations have been included in this Pocket Guide and are double underlined wherever they appear. There are a few places where the requirements between the standards and the regulations differ. In these cases, the regulations prevail.

ETA Editor’s Notes are shown in a double-bordered box.
Advisory notes are marked with a shaded double-bordered box.

Hyperlinks are used throughout this publication to assist the reader in several ways. Internal hyperlinks point to other sections of the Pocket Guide or Safe Harbor references where applicable and are indicated by dark blue font. External hyperlinks point to more information to expand on particular sections and subjects, as well as other websites; these links are indicated by light blue font. The most frequent type of external hyperlink is indicated within brackets. These links point to www.Corada.com, the Comprehensive Online Resource for the ADA developed by Evan Terry Associates.  Each Corada “more info…” link offers significantly expanded information and resources relevant to the particular section you are reading. Please note that you will need Wi-Fi connectivity or a data plan and a compatible PDF reader to access external links from your mobile device.  We’ve had excellent success using Adobe’s Acrobat, Readers, and their DC app. Also, ezPDF Reader from the Apple App Store works well on iOS devices. We have found that most Kindle readers don’t allow live hyperlinks to function properly. We expect that some other PDF readers will also have difficulty with hyperlinks and we are testing now to determine which ones work best.  For up-to-date information on PDF reader software compatibility under various operating systems, you can go to www.ETAPocketGuides.com.

We have added over 225 references in this Pocket Guide to requirements that are potentially modified by the safe harbor provisions in the 2010 regulations that can be found at 35.150(b)(2), 35.151(b)(4)(ii)(C)36.304(d)(2)(i) & (iii), the Appendix to 36.304(d)(2) [p. 15 Table], and 36.403(a)(2). These references are shown in bold italics within brackets (e.g. [S.H. 4.1.6(1)(i) ] ) at the end of the referenced section referring the reader to the comparable section of the 1991 ADA Standards. Each of these safe harbor references is hyperlinked to the referenced section from the 1991 Standards. This is NOT a comprehensive listing of the safe harbor sections that might apply to any existing element and the sections listed will not always apply to every existing element covered by the 2010 ADA safe harbor sections. Where a scoping requirement is the same as the 1991 ADA Standards and it “points to” a technical section that includes safe harbor references, we have not included those technical safe harbor references at the scoping section. We have applied the same approach to technical requirement sections that “point to” other technical requirements. Also, in the new sections of the 2010 ADA Standards (e.g., Chapter 10 Recreation Facilities, 807 Holding Cells and Housing Cells, 808 Courtrooms, and 809 Residential Dwelling Units), the safe harbors may apply when requirements in those sections “point to” another reference that has a safe harbor.  For your reference, the 1991 ADA Standards can be found in their entirety in the back of this PDF book.  The bottom of each page of the 1991 Standards includes the phrase “1991 ADA Standards: for Safe Harbor Reference”  to minimize the chance of mistaking these for the current Standards. As there are currently still some uncertainties about how to interpret and apply the safe harbor provisions, we have a dedicated website at www.ADASafeHarbor.com to provide additional information on the topic. You may also register online at www.ETAPocketGuides.com to be notified when you can purchase updated versions of this pdf book or a printed version of this Pocket Guide at a discount that will include additional clarifications of the safe harbor provisions as they become available.

It is important to note that, per Section 36.406(b) and 35.151(d), Scope of coverage, the 1991 Standards and the 2010 Standards apply to fixed or built-in elements of buildings, structures, site improvements, and pedestrian routes or vehicular ways located on a site. Unless specifically stated otherwise, advisory notes, appendix notes, and figures contained in the 1991 Standards and 2010 Standards explain or illustrate the requirements of the rule; they do not establish enforceable requirements.

Subpart F of the Title III regulations covers certification of equivalency for state standards. This section explains that equivalency granted to state codes under the 1991 ADA Standards is no longer in effect.

As with the current ADA regulations, design professionals are responsible for knowing the requirements of every section of the regulations that affect their projects. We have not attempted to include the sections from the regulations that cover employment, program access, readily achievable barrier removal, policies, procedures, contracts, communications, or operational requirements in this Pocket Guide.

The Basis for This Pocket Guide

This publication has been compiled from the 2010 ADA Standards for Accessible Design and from selected sections of the ADA Title II and Title III Regulations as published on the Department of Justice (DOJ) website at www.ADA.gov.  

35.151(c) (for Public Entity Facilities)

(c) Accessibility standards and compliance date.

(1) If physical construction or alterations commence after July 26, 1992, but prior to September 15, 2010, then new construction and alterations subject to this section must comply with either the UFAS or the 1991 Standards except that the elevator exemption contained at section 4.1.3(5) and section 4.1.6(1)(k) of the 1991 Standards shall not apply. Departures from particular requirements of either standard by the use of other methods shall be permitted when it is clearly evident that equivalent access to the facility or part of the facility is thereby provided.

(2) If physical construction or alterations commence on or after September 15, 2010, and before March 15, 2012, then new construction and alterations subject to this section may comply with one of the following: the 2010 Standards, UFAS, or the 1991 Standards except that the elevator exemption contained at section 4.1.3(5) and section 4.1.6(1)(k) of the 1991 Standards shall not apply. Departures from particular requirements of either standard by the use of other methods shall be permitted when it is clearly evident that equivalent access to the facility or part of the facility is thereby provided.

(3) If physical construction or alterations commence on or after March 15, 2012, then new construction and alterations subject to this section shall comply with the 2010 Standards.

(4) For the purposes of this section, ceremonial groundbreaking or razing of structures prior to site preparation do not commence physical construction or alterations.

(5) Noncomplying new construction and alterations.

(i) Newly constructed or altered facilities or elements covered by §§ 35.151(a) or (b) that were constructed or altered before March 15, 2012, and that do not comply with the 1991 Standards or with UFAS shall before March 15, 2012, be made accessible in accordance with either the 1991 Standards, UFAS, or the 2010 Standards.

(ii) Newly constructed or altered facilities or elements covered by §§ 35.151(a) or (b) that were constructed or altered before March 15, 2012 and that do not comply with the 1991 Standards or with UFAS shall, on or after March 15, 2012, be made accessible in accordance with the 2010 Standards.  [more info…]

36.406(a) (for Public Accommodations and Commercial Facilities)

(a) Accessibility standards and compliance date.

(1) New construction and alterations subject to §§ 36.401 or 36.402 shall comply with the 1991 Standards if the date when the last application for a building permit or permit extension is certified to be complete by a State, county, or local government (or, in those jurisdictions where the government does not certify completion of applications, if the date when the last application for a building permit or permit extension is received by the State, county, or local government) is before September 15, 2010, or if no permit is required, if the start of physical construction or alterations occurs before September 15, 2010.

(2) New construction and alterations subject to §§ 36.401 or 36.402 shall comply either with the 1991 Standards or with the 2010 Standards if the date when the last application for a building permit or permit extension is certified to be complete by a State, county, or local government (or, in those jurisdictions where the government does not certify completion of applications, if the date when the last application for a building permit or permit extension is received by the State, county, or local government) is on or after September 15, 2010, and before March 15, 2012, or if no permit is required, if the start of physical construction or alterations occurs on or after September 15, 2010, and before March 15, 2012.

(3) New construction and alterations subject to §§ 36.401 or 36.402 shall comply with the 2010 Standards if the date when the last application for a building permit or permit extension is certified to be complete by a State, county, or local government (or, in those jurisdictions where the government does not certify completion of applications, if the date when the last application for a building permit or permit extension is received by the State, county, or local government) is on or after March 15, 2012, or if no permit is required, if the start of physical construction or alterations occurs on or after March 15, 2012.

(4) For the purposes of this section, "start of physical construction or alterations" does not mean ceremonial groundbreaking or razing of structures prior to site preparation.

(5) Noncomplying new construction and alterations.

(i) Newly constructed or altered facilities or elements covered by §§ 36.401 or 36.402 that were constructed or altered before March 15, 2012, and that do not comply with the 1991 Standards shall, before March 15, 2012, be made accessible in accordance with either the 1991 Standards or the 2010 Standards.

(ii) Newly constructed or altered facilities or elements covered by §§ 36.401 or 36.402 that were constructed or altered before March 15, 2012 and that do not comply with the 1991 Standards shall, on or after March 15, 2012, be made accessible in accordance with the 2010 Standards.  [more info…]

On May 18, 2012, DOJ announced that the compliance date to meet the 2010 ADA Standards for entry into existing swimming pools & spas had been extended to January 31, 2013.

The Department of Transportation adopted by reference the revised ADA guidelines as regulatory standards effective November 29, 2006, and added or modified four sections. These sections are included in this pocket guide within ETA Editor’s Notes in double-lined boxes.

Comparison of the 2010 ADA Standards to the 1991 ADA Standards

Evan Terry Associates has developed a detailed (line-by-line) reverse sortable analysis to show how the 2010 ADA Standards compare to the 1991 ADA Standards. It is available at www.ADAStandardsComparison.com as a free download for all interested parties in MS Excel spreadsheet format. The Access Board has less detailed comparisons of its 2004 Guidelines with the 2010 ADA Standards and with the IBC 2003 and 2006 Standards and the NFPA 5000 Standard at www.Access-Board.gov/IBC-Comparison.

Updates and Other Pocket Guides

Evan Terry Associates will continue to revise and update this Pocket Guide as new technical assistance is released and interpretations are provided by federal agencies.

We are currently finishing additional Pocket Guide versions covering selected state access standards.  You may visit our website at www.ETAPocketGuides.com where additional information is available about these publications.

If you would like to be notified when new Pocket Guides become available, when changes are made to this Pocket Guide or when new Standards are adopted by DOJ and other federal agencies as ADA, ABA, and/or Rehab Act design standards, you can register to receive email notices of those occurrences by visiting us at www.AccessUpdates.com, emailing us at ETA@EvanTerry.com, or contacting us at (205) 972-9101 (voice), (205) 972-9112 (TTY) or (205) 972-9110 (fax).

For additional current information on ADA and other access compliance requirements, please visit our website at www.Corada.com.

For ADA survey and compliance tools that will simplify your field measurement process and plan reviews, the Corada Shop has a growing collection of templates and tools that you can download for free or buy on plastic stock.

Upcoming Revisions to the ADA Standards

Although these topics are out of the scope of this Pocket Guide, the following additions and updates to the ADA standards are worth watching for. More information on each of these can be found on the Access Board’s website and on Corada.

1. Public Rights-of-Way

Public Rights-of-Way Guidelines are still under study by the Access Board, DOJ and DOT. From the Board’s website:

“Sidewalks, street crossings, and other elements in the public right-of-way can pose challenges to accessibility. The Board’s ADA and ABA Accessibility Guidelines focus mainly on facilities on sites. While they address certain features common to public sidewalks, such as curb ramps, further guidance is necessary to address conditions and constraints unique to public rights-of-way.

“The Board is developing new guidelines for public rights-of-way that will address various issues, including access for blind pedestrians at street crossings, wheelchair access to on-street parking, and various constraints posed by space limitations, roadway design practices, slope, and terrain. The new guidelines will cover pedestrian access to sidewalks and streets, including crosswalks, curb ramps, street furnishings, pedestrian signals, parking, and other components of public rights-of-way. The Board’s aim in developing these guidelines is to ensure that access for persons with disabilities is provided wherever a pedestrian way is newly built or altered, and that the same degree of convenience, connection, and safety afforded the public generally is available to pedestrians with disabilities. Once these guidelines are adopted by the Department of Justice, they will become enforceable standards under title II of the ADA.”

Until they are adopted, an excellent publication, Designing Sidewalks and Trails for Access Part II of II: Best Practices Design Guide, has been published by the Board and the Federal Highway Administration and can be downloaded for free at http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/bicycle_pedestrian/publications/sidewalk2/index.cfm.

2. Shared Use Paths

From the Board’s website:

“Shared use paths provide a means of off-road transportation and recreation for various users, including pedestrians, bicyclists, skaters, and others, including people with disabilities. In its rulemaking on public rights-of-way and on trails and other outdoor developed areas, comments from the public urged the Board to address access to shared use paths since they are distinct from sidewalks and trails. Shared use paths, unlike most sidewalks, are physically separated from streets by an open space or barrier. They also differ from trails because they are designed not just for recreation purposes but for transportation as well.

“In response, the Board is supplementing its rulemaking on public rights-of-way to also cover shared use paths.  The proposed rights-of-way guidelines, which address access to sidewalks, streets, and other pedestrian facilities, provide requirements for pedestrian access routes, including specifications for route width, grade, cross slope, surfaces, and other features. The Board proposes to apply these and other relevant requirements to shared use paths as well. This supplementary rulemaking also would add provisions tailored to shared use paths into the rights-of-way guidelines.”

In February 2013 The Board released for public comment proposed requirements for accessible shared use paths used by pedestrians, bicyclists, and others for transportation or recreation. More information can be found on the Access Board’s website at http://www.Access-Board.gov/Guidelines-and-Standards/Streets-Sidewalks.

3. Emergency Transportable Housing

From the Board’s website:

“The Board has issued guidelines for temporary housing provided by the government in emergencies and natural disasters. Emergency transportable housing units, which are designed and manufactured for transport over roadways, have a smaller footprint than other types of housing and pose unique accessibility challenges. Access to such housing was found to be problematic in the aftermath of hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005. The new guidelines supplement the Board's ADA and ABA Accessibility Guidelines by adding provisions and exceptions that specifically address emergency transportable housing. The Board developed these guidelines according to recommendations from an advisory panel it organized, the Emergency Transportable Housing Advisory Committee, which included representation from disability groups, industry and code groups, and government agencies...  The final rule was effective June 6, 2014. Compliance is not required by entities subject to the ADA until DOJ updates its accessibility standards to be consistent with the final rule.  Compliance is not required by entities subject to the ABA until HUD updates its accessibility standards to be consistent with the final rule.”

More information can be found on the Access Board’s website at https://www.access-board.gov/guidelines-and-standards/buildings-and-sites/emergency-transportable-housing.

4. Passenger Vessels

In June of 2013 the Board released for public comment proposed guidelines for access to ferries, cruise ships, excursion boats, and other passenger vessels under the ADA. Once finalized, these guidelines will supplement the Board’s ADA Accessibility Guidelines for Transportation Vehicles. The Department of Justice and the Department of Transportation will use the guidelines to set mandatory standards. More information can be found on the Access Board’s website at https://www.access-board.gov/guidelines-and-standards/transportation/passenger-vessels/about.

5. Medical Diagnostic Equipment

On January 9, 2017, new accessibility standards were published in the Federal Register for medical diagnostic equipment. From the Board’s website:

“The Board has issued accessibility standards for medical diagnostic equipment under section 510 of the Rehabilitation Act. These standards provide design criteria for examination tables and chairs, including those used for dental or optical exams and procedures, weight scales, radiological equipment, mammography equipment and other equipment used for diagnostic purposes by health professionals. The standards address equipment that requires transfer from wheelchairs and other mobility aids and include requirements for transfer surfaces, support rails, armrests, compatibility with lift devices, and other features. Equipment that accommodates mobility devices without transfer is also covered.

As issued by the Board, the standards are not mandatory on health care providers or equipment manufacturers. The U.S. Department of Justice may adopt them as mandatory requirements under the Americans with Disabilities Act. Other federal agencies may implement them as well under the Rehabilitation Act which requires access to federally funded programs and services.”

AFor the most up-to-date information regarding effective date, visit the Access Board’s website at https://www.access-board.gov/guidelines-and-standards/health-care/about-this-rulemaking/final-standards/text-of-the-proposed-standards-9

6. Classroom Acoustics

The Board is undertaking rulemaking to address acoustics in classrooms by referencing a voluntary consensus standard developed by the Acoustical Society of America (ASA) with support from the Board. Accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), the “ANSI/ASA S12.60-2010 American National Standard Acoustical Performance Criteria, Design Requirements, and Guidelines for Schools (Parts 1 and 2)” sets specific criteria for maximum background noise and reverberation time in classrooms. Consistent with long-standing recommendations for good practice in educational settings, the standard set specific criteria for maximum background noise (35 decibels) and reverberation time (0.6 to 0.7 seconds) for unoccupied classrooms. Once these guidelines are adopted by the Department of Justice, they will become enforceable standards under the ADA.  More information may be found on the Access Board’s website at https://www.access-board.gov/guidelines-and-standards/buildings-and-sites/classroom-acoustics.

7. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Standards and Guidelines

ETA Editor's Note:

See 36 CFR Part 1194 - Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Final Standards and Guidelines (with amendments issued through Jan. 2018), effective January 2018.

From the Board’s website:

“On January 18, 2017, the Access Board published a final rule that jointly updates requirements for information and communication technology covered by Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act and Section 255 of the Communication Act. The Section 508 Standards apply to electronic and information technology procured by the federal government, including computer hardware and software, websites, multimedia such as video, phone systems, and copiers. The Section 255 Guidelines address access to telecommunications products and services, and apply to manufacturers of telecommunication equipment.

The final rule jointly updates and reorganizes the Section 508 standards and Section 255 guidelines in response to market trends and innovations, such as the convergence of technologies. The refresh also harmonizes these requirements with other guidelines and standards both in the U.S. and abroad, including standards issued by the European Commission and with the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG), a globally recognized voluntary consensus standard for web content and ICT.”

For more information on communications topics and up-to-date information on the effective dates, visit the Board’s web site at https://www.access-board.gov/guidelines-and-standards/communications-and-it/about-the-ict-refresh/final-rule

Although these standards and guidelines do not apply directly under the ADA, when followed, they provide strong evidence that private and public entities are meeting applicable portions of their effective communication requirements under the ADA.

8. Transportation Vehicles

On December 14, 2016, the ADA Accessibility Guidelines for Buses and Vans was published in the Federal Register. The final rule became effective on January 13, 2017. From the Board’s website:

“The Access Board has issued a final rule updating sections of its accessibility guidelines for transportation vehicles covered by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The rule revises provisions in the guidelines that apply to buses and vans to enhance accessibility and to address industry trends and improvements in design and technology. The guidelines, which the Board originally published in 1991, apply to new or remanufactured vehicles (they also include provisions for rail vehicles that the Board will update separately)… The Board’s vehicle guidelines serve as the basis for mandatory standards issued by the Department of Transportation (DOT) under the ADA. Compliance with the updated requirements for buses and vans will become mandatory once specified by DOT in a future update of its ADA standards.”

More information can be found on the Access Board’s website at https://www.access-board.gov/guidelines-and-standards/transportation/vehicles/about-adaag-for-transportation-vehicles.

9. Outdoor Developed Areas

From the Board’s website:

“Achieving accessibility in outdoor environments has long been a source of inquiry due to challenges and constraints posed by terrain, the degree of development, construction practices and materials, and other factors.

The Board has issued requirements that are now part of the Architectural Barriers Act (ABA) Accessibility Standards and apply to national parks and other outdoor areas developed by the federal government. They do not apply to outdoor areas developed with federal grants or loans. A guide that explains these requirements also is available.

The new provisions address access to trails, picnic and camping areas, viewing areas, beach access routes and other components of outdoor developed areas on federal sites when newly built or altered. They also provide exceptions for situations where terrain and other factors make compliance impracticable. The new requirements are located in sections F201.4, F216.3, F244 to F248, and 1011 to 1019 of the ABA Standards.

The Board intends to develop guidelines for non-federal outdoor sites covered by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and areas developed with federal grants and loans covered by the ABA through a subsequent rulemaking.” 

Until the final ADA guidelines are published, following these guidelines should provide strong evidence that public entities are meeting their program access requirements under the ADA.

More information can be found on the Access Board’s website at https://www.access-board.gov/guidelines-and-standards/recreation-facilities/outdoor-developed-areas

10. Prescription Drug Container Labels

From the Board’s website:

“The Board has led the development of advisory guidance on making prescription drug container labels accessible to people who are blind or visually impaired or who are elderly. This initiative was authorized by the “Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act" which President Obama signed into law in July 2012.  A provision of the act (section 904) directs the Board to convene a working group to develop best practices for making information on prescription drug container labels accessible to people who are blind or visually impaired.

Shortly after the law was enacted, the Board formed the Working Group on Accessible Prescription Drug Container Labels, an 18-member stakeholder panel comprised of representatives from advocacy organizations and industry. The working group explored various access alternatives, including braille, large print labels, and auditory technologies such as “talking bottles” and radio frequency identification tags. In July 2013, it submitted to the Board its best practice recommendations for pharmacies on providing independent access to prescription drug container labels.  These recommendations are advisory only, not mandatory, and will not have the force of guidelines or standards.

The law directs the National Council on Disability (NCD) to conduct an informational and educational campaign in cooperation with the stakeholder working group to inform the public, including people with disabilities and pharmacists, of the best practices. In June 2016, NCD issued a brochure on the best practices recommended by the Board's working group.  The law also calls upon the Comptroller General to conduct a review to assess the extent to which pharmacies are implementing the best practices and to determine whether barriers to prescription drug labels remain.”

More information can be found on the Access Board’s website at https://www.access-board.gov/guidelines-and-standards/health-care/about-prescription-drug-container-labels

Research Projects

The Board sponsors and coordinates research for use in developing accessibility guidelines and providing technical assistance to the public. The Board’s research program is focused on the study of accessibility relating to architecture and design, communication, and transportation. A number of research projects have been completed by the Access Board and others are underway or planned. More information about these projects can be found on the Access Board’s website at http://www.Access-Board.gov/Research.

The results of those projects will be incorporated into future editions of the Pocket Guide only when they are integrated into the guidelines and then published as enforceable Final Rules by the Department of Justice and other adopting agencies.

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1: APPLICATION AND ADMINISTRATION

101 Purpose
102 Dimensions for Adults and Children
103 Equivalent Facilitation
104 Conventions
105 Referenced Standards
106 Definitions
CHAPTER 2: SCOPING REQUIREMENTS
201 Application
202 Existing Buildings and Facilities
203 General Exceptions
204 Protruding Objects
205 Operable Parts
206 Accessible Routes
207 Accessible Means of Egress
208 Parking Spaces
209 Passenger Loading Zone and Bus Stops
210 Stairways
211 Drinking Fountains
212 Kitchens, Kitchenettes, and Sinks
213 Toilet Facilities and Bathing Facilities
214 Washing Machines and Clothes Dryers
215 Fire Alarm Systems
216 Signs
217 Telephones
218 Transportation Facilities
219 Assistive Listening Systems
220 Automatic Teller Machine and Fare Machines
221 Assembly Areas
222 Dressing, Fitting, and Locker Rooms
223 Medical Care and Long-Term Care Facilities
224 Transient Lodging Guest Rooms
225 Storage
226 Dining Surfaces and Work Surfaces
227 Sales and Service
228 Depositories, Vending Machines, Change Machines, Mail Boxes, and Fuel Dispensers
229 Windows
230 Two-Way Communication Systems
231 Judicial Facilities
232 Detention Facilities and Correctional Facilities
233 Residential Facilities
234 Amusement Rides
235 Recreational Boating Facilities
236 Exercise Machines and Equipment
237 Fishing Piers and Platforms
238 Golf Facilities
239 Miniature Golf Facilities
240 Play Areas
241 Saunas and Steam Rooms
242 Swimming Pools, Wading Pools, and Spas
243 Shooting Facilities with Firing Positions
CHAPTER 3: BUILDING BLOCKS
301 General
302 Floor or Ground Surfaces
303 Changes in Level
304 Turning Space
305 Clear Floor or Ground Space
306 Knee and Toe Clearance
307 Protruding Objects
308 Reach Ranges
309 Operable Parts
CHAPTER 4: ACCESSIBLE ROUTES
401 General
402 Accessible Routes
403 Walking Surfaces
404 Doors, Doorways, and Gates
405 Ramps
406 Curb Ramps
407 Elevators
408 Limited-Use/Limited-Application Elevators
409 Private Residence Elevators
410 Platform Lifts
CHAPTER 5: GENERAL SITE AND BUILDING ELEMENTS
501 General
502 Parking Spaces
503 Passenger Loading Zones
504 Stairways
505 Handrails
CHAPTER 6: PLUMBING ELEMENTS AND FACILITIES
601 General
602 Drinking Fountains
603 Toilet and Bathing Rooms
604 Water Closets and Toilet Compartments
605 Urinals
606 Lavatories and Sinks
607 Bathtubs
608 Shower Compartments
609 Grab Bars
610 Seats
611 Washing Machines and Clothes Dryers
612 Saunas and Steam Rooms
CHAPTER 7: COMMUNICATION ELEMENTS AND FEATURES
701 General
702 Fire Alarm Systems
703 Signs
704 Telephones
705 Detectable Warnings
706 Assistive Listening Systems
707 Automatic Teller Machines and Fare Machines
708 Two-Way Communication Systems
CHAPTER 8: SPECIAL ROOMS, SPACES, AND ELEMENTS
801 General
802 Wheelchair Spaces, Companion Seats, and Designated Aisle Seats
803 Dressing, Fitting, and Locker Rooms
804 Kitchens and Kitchenettes
805 Medical Care and Long-Term Care Facilities
806 Transient Lodging Guest Rooms
807 Holding Cells and Housing Cells
808 Courtrooms
809 Residential Dwelling Units
810 Transportation Facilities
811 Storage
CHAPTER 9: BUILT-IN ELEMENTS
901 General
902 Dining Surfaces and Work Surfaces
903 Benches
904 Check-Out Aisles and Sales and Service Counters
CHAPTER 10: RECREATION FACILITIES
1001 General
1002 Amusement Rides
1003 Recreational Boating Facilities
1004 Exercise Machines and Equipment
1005 Fishing Piers and Platforms
1006 Golf Facilities
1007 Miniature Golf Facilities
1008 Play Areas
1009 Swimming Pools, Wading Pools, and Spas

1010 Shooting Facilities with Firing Positions

101.1 General.

This document contains scoping and technical requirements for accessibility to sites, facilities, buildings, and elements by individuals with disabilities. The requirements are to be applied during the design, construction, additions to, and alteration of sites, facilities, buildings, and elements to the extent required by regulations issued by Federal agencies under the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA).

35.151(a) New Construction and Alterations; Design and Construction.

(1) Each facility or part of a facility constructed by, on behalf of, or for the use of a public entity shall be designed and constructed in such manner that the facility or part of the facility is readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities, if the construction was commenced after January 26, 1992.

36.401(a) New Construction; General.

(1) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, discrimination for purposes of this part includes a failure to design and construct facilities for first occupancy after January 26, 1993, that are readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities.

(2) For purposes of this section, a facility is designed and constructed for first occupancy after January 26, 1993, only –

(i) If the last application for a building permit or permit extension for the facility is certified to be complete, by a State, County, or local government after January 26, 1992 (or, in those jurisdictions where the government does not certify completion of applications, if the last application for a building permit or permit extension for the facility is received by the State, County, or local government after January 26, 1992); and

(ii) If the first certificate of occupancy for the facility is issued after January 26, 1993.

Advisory 101.1 General. In addition to these requirements, covered entities must comply with the regulations issued by the Department of Justice and the Department of Transportation under the Americans with Disabilities Act. There are issues affecting individuals with disabilities which are not addressed by these requirements, but which are covered by the Department of Justice and the Department of Transportation regulations.

101.2 Effect on Removal of Barriers in Existing Facilities.

This document does not address existing facilities unless altered at the discretion of a covered entity. The Department of Justice has authority over existing facilities that are subject to the requirement for removal of barriers under title III of the ADA. Any determination that this document applies to existing facilities subject to the barrier removal requirement is solely within the discretion of the Department of Justice and is effective only to the extent required by regulations issued by the Department of Justice.

ETA Editor’s Note:

While the 2010 Standards address new construction and alterations of existing facilities, the Title II and Title III regulations include a safe harbor provision for existing facilities. In addition, Title III requires removal of barriers for existing facilities not undergoing alterations as defined in the Standards. Included below are the sections referring to safe harbor and removal of barriers. (For more information go to http://www.ADASafeHarbor.com

35.150(b) Existing Facilities; Methods

(2)(i) Safe harbor. Elements that have not been altered in existing facilities on or after March 15, 2012, and that comply with the corresponding technical and scoping specifications for those elements in either the 1991 Standards or in the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS), Appendix A to 41 CFR part 101–19.6 (July 1, 2002 ed.), 49 FR 31528, app. A (Aug. 7, 1984) are not required to be modified in order to comply with the requirements set forth in the 2010 Standards . 

(ii) The safe harbor provided in §35.150(b)(2)(i) does not apply to those elements in existing facilities that are subject to supplemental requirements (i.e., elements for which there are neither technical nor scoping specifications in the 1991 Standards). Elements in the 2010 Standards not eligible for the element-by-element safe harbor are identified as follows––

(A) Residential facilities dwelling units, sections 233 and 809.

(B) Amusement rides, sections 234 and 1002; 206.2.9; 216.12.

(C) Recreational boating facilities, sections 235 and 1003; 206.2.10.

(D) Exercise machines and equipment, sections 236 and 1004; 206.2.13.

(E) Fishing piers and platforms, sections 237 and 1005; 206.2.14.

(F) Golf facilities, sections 238 and 1006; 206.2.15.

(G) Miniature golf facilities, sections 239 and 1007; 206.2.16.

(H) Play areas, sections 240 and 1008; 206.2.17.

(I) Saunas and steam rooms, sections 241 and 612.

(J) Swimming pools, wading pools, and spas, sections 242 and 1009.

(K) Shooting facilities with firing positions, sections 243 and 1010.

(L) Miscellaneous.

          (1) Team or player seating, section 221.2.1.4.

          (2) Accessible route to bowling lanes, section 206.2.11.

          (3) Accessible route in court sports facilities, section 206.2.12

36.304 Removal of Barriers

(a) General. A public accommodation shall remove architectural barriers in existing facilities, including communication barriers that are structural in nature, where such removal is readily achievable, i.e., easily accomplishable and able to be carried out without much difficulty or expense.

(b) Examples. Examples of steps to remove barriers include, but are not limited to, the following actions –

(1) Installing ramps;

(2) Making curb cuts in sidewalks and entrances;

(3) Repositioning shelves;

(4) Rearranging tables, chairs, vending machines, display racks, and other furniture;

(5) Repositioning telephones;

(6) Adding raised markings on elevator control buttons;

(7) Installing flashing alarm lights;

(8) Widening doors;

(9) Installing offset hinges to widen doorways;

(10) Eliminating a turnstile or providing an alternative accessible path;

(11) Installing accessible door hardware;

(12) Installing grab bars in toilet stalls;

(13) Rearranging toilet partitions to increase maneuvering space;

(14) Insulating lavatory pipes under sinks to prevent burns;

(15) Installing a raised toilet seat;

(16) Installing a full-length bathroom mirror;

(17) Repositioning the paper towel dispenser in a bathroom;

(18) Creating designated accessible parking spaces;

(19) Installing an accessible paper cup dispenser at an existing inaccessible water fountain;

(20) Removing high pile, low density carpeting; or

(21) Installing vehicle hand controls.

(c) Priorities. A public accommodation is urged to take measures to comply with the barrier removal requirements of this section in accordance with the following order of priorities.

(1) First, a public accommodation should take measures to provide access to a place of public accommodation from public sidewalks, parking, or public transportation. These measures include, for example, installing an entrance ramp, widening entrances, and providing accessible parking spaces.

(2) Second, a public accommodation should take measures to provide access to those areas of a place of public accommodation where goods and services are made available to the public. These measures include, for example, adjusting the layout of display racks, rearranging tables, providing Brailled and raised character signage, widening doors, providing visual alarms, and installing ramps.

(3) Third, a public accommodation should take measures to provide access to restroom facilities. These measures include, for example, removal of obstructing furniture or vending machines, widening of doors, installation of ramps, providing accessible signage, widening of toilet stalls, and installation of grab bars.

(4) Fourth, a public accommodation should take any other measures necessary to provide access to the goods, services, facilities, privileges, advantages, or accommodations of a place of public accommodation.

(d) Relationship to Alterations Requirements of Subpart D of this Part.

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (d)(3) of this section, measures taken to comply with the barrier removal requirements of this section shall comply with the applicable requirements for alterations in §36.402 and §§36.404 through 36.406 of this part for the element being altered. The path of travel requirements of §36.403 shall not apply to measures taken solely to comply with the barrier removal requirements of this section.

(2) (i) Safe harbor. Elements that have not been altered in existing facilities on or after March 15, 2012, and that comply with the corresponding technical and scoping specifications for those elements in the 1991 Standards are not required to be modified in order to comply with the requirements set forth in the 2010 Standards.

(ii) (A) Before March 15, 2012, elements in existing facilities that do not comply with the corresponding technical and scoping specifications for those elements in the 1991 Standards must be modified to the extent readily achievable to comply with either the 1991 Standards or the 2010 Standards. Noncomplying newly constructed and altered elements may also be subject to the requirements of §36.406(a)(5).

(B) On or after March 15, 2012, elements in existing facilities that do not comply with the corresponding technical and scoping specifications for those elements in the 1991 Standards must be modified to the extent readily achievable to comply with the requirements set forth in the 2010 Standards. Noncomplying newly constructed and altered elements may also be subject to the requirements of § 36.406(a)(5).

(iii) The safe harbor provided in § 36.304(d)(2)(i) does not apply to those elements in existing facilities that are subject to supplemental requirements (i.e., elements for which there are neither technical nor scoping specifications in the 1991 Standards), and therefore those elements must be modified to the extent readily achievable to comply with the 2010 Standards. Noncomplying newly constructed and altered elements may also be subject to the requirements of § 36.406(a)(5). Elements in the 2010 Standards not eligible for the element-by-element safe harbor are identified as follows –

(A) Residential facilities dwelling units, sections 233 and 809.

(B) Amusement rides, sections 234 and 1002; 206.2.9; 216.12.

(C) Recreational boating facilities, sections 235 and 1003; 206.2.10.

(D) Exercise machines and equipment, sections 236 and 1004; 206.2.13.

(E) Fishing piers and platforms, sections 237 and 1005; 206.2.14.

(F) Golf facilities, sections 238 and 1006; 206.2.15.

(G) Miniature golf facilities, sections 239 and 1007; 206.2.16.

(H) Play areas, sections 240 and 1008; 206.2.17.

(I) Saunas and steam rooms, sections 241 and 612.

(J) Swimming pools, wading pools, and spas, sections 242 and 1009.

(K) Shooting facilities with firing positions, sections 243 and 1010.

(L) Miscellaneous.

          (1) Team or player seating, section 221.2.1.4.

          (2) Accessible route to bowling lanes, section 206.2.11.

          (3) Accessible route in court sports facilities, section 206.2.12

(3) If, as a result of compliance with the alterations requirements specified in paragraph (d)(1) and (d)(2) of this section, the measures required to remove a barrier would not be readily achievable, a public accommodation may take other readily achievable measures to remove the barrier that do not fully comply with the specified requirements. Such measures include, for example, providing a ramp with a steeper slope or widening a doorway to a narrower width than that mandated by the alterations requirements. No measure shall be taken, however, that poses a significant risk to the health or safety of individuals with disabilities or others.

Appendix to 36.304(d)

Compliance Dates and Applicable Standards for Barrier Removal and Safe Harbor

Date

Requirement

Applicable Standards

Before March 15, 2012

Elements that do not comply with the requirements for those elements in the 1991 Standards must be modified to the extent readily achievable.

Note: Noncomplying newly constructed and altered elements may also be subject to the requirements of § 36.406(a)(5).

1991 Standards or 2010 Standards.

On or after March 15, 2012

Elements that do not comply with the requirements for those elements in the 1991 Standards or that do not comply with the supplemental requirements (i.e., elements for which there are neither technical nor scoping specifications in the 1991 Standards), must be modified to the extent readily achievable. There is an exception for existing pools, wading pools, and spas built before March 15, 2012 [See § 36.304(g)(5)]
Note: Noncomplying newly constructed and altered elements may also be subject to the requirements of § 36.406(a)(5).

2010 Standards.

On or after January 31, 2013

For existing pools, wading pools, and spas built before March 15, 2012, elements that do not comply with the supplemental requirements for entry to pools, wading pools, and spas must be modified to the extent readily achievable [See § 36.304(g)(5)]

Sections 242 and 1009 of the 2010 Standards.

Elements not altered after March 15, 2012

Elements that comply with the requirements for those elements in the 1991 Standards do not need to be modified

Safe Harbor.

(e) Portable Ramps. Portable ramps should be used to comply with this section only when installation of a permanent ramp is not readily achievable. In order to avoid any significant risk to the health or safety of individuals with disabilities or others in using portable ramps, due consideration shall be given to safety features such as nonslip surfaces, railings, anchoring, and strength of materials.

(f) Selling or Serving Space. The rearrangement of temporary or movable structures, such as furniture, equipment, and display racks is not readily achievable to the extent that it results in a significant loss of selling or serving space.

(g) Limitation on Barrier Removal Obligations.

(1) The requirements for barrier removal under §36.304 shall not be interpreted to exceed the standards for alterations in subpart D of this part.

(2) To the extent that relevant standards for alterations are not provided in subpart D of this part, then the requirements of §36.304 shall not be interpreted to exceed the standards for new construction in subpart D of this part.

(3) This section does not apply to rolling stock and other conveyances to the extent that §36.310 applies to rolling stock and other conveyances.

(4) This requirement does not apply to guest rooms in existing facilities that are places of lodging where the guest rooms are not owned by the entity that owns, leases, or operates the overall facility and the physical features of the guest room interiors are controlled by their individual owners

36.305 Alternatives to Barrier Removal

(a) General. Where a public accommodation can demonstrate that barrier removal is not readily achievable, the public accommodation shall not fail to make its goods, services, facilities, privileges, advantages, or accommodations available through alternative methods, if those methods are readily achievable.

(b) Examples. Examples of alternatives to barrier removal include, but are not limited to, the following actions –

(1) Providing curb service or home delivery;

(2) Retrieving merchandise from inaccessible shelves or racks;

(3) Relocating activities to accessible locations;

(c) Multiscreen Cinemas. If it is not readily achievable to remove barriers to provide access by persons with mobility impairments to all of the theaters of a multiscreen cinema, the cinema shall establish a film rotation schedule that provides reasonable access for individuals who use wheelchairs to all films. Reasonable notice shall be provided to the public as to the location and time of accessible showings. 

102 Dimensions for Adults and Children.

The technical requirements are based on adult dimensions and anthropometrics. In addition, this document includes technical requirements based on children’s dimensions and anthropometrics for drinking fountains, water closets, toilet compartments, lavatories and sinks, dining surfaces, and work surfaces.

103 Equivalent Facilitation.

Nothing in these requirements prevents the use of designs, products, or technologies as alternatives to those prescribed, provided they result in substantially equivalent or greater accessibility and usability.

Advisory 103 Equivalent Facilitation. The responsibility for demonstrating equivalent facilitation in the event of a challenge rests with the covered entity. With the exception of transit facilities, which are covered by regulations issued by the Department of Transportation, there is no process for certifying that an alternative design provides equivalent facilitation.

104 Conventions

Dimension lines show English units above the line (in inches unless otherwise noted) and the SI units (in millimeters unless otherwise noted). Small measurements show the dimension with an arrow pointing to the dimension line. Dimension ranges are shown above the line in inches and below the line in millimeters. Min refers to minimum, and max refers to the maximum. Mathematical symbols indicate greater than, greater than or equal to, less than, and less than or equal to. A dashed line identifies the boundary of clear floor space or maneuvering space. A line with alternating shot and long dashes with a c and l at the end indicate the centerline. A dashed line with longer spaces indicates a permitted element or its extension. An arrow is to identify the direction of travel or approach. A thick black line is used to represent a wall, floor, ceiling or other element cut in section or plan. Gray shading is used to show an element in elevation or plan. Hatching is used to show the location zone of elements, controls, or features. Terms defined by this document are shown in italics.

Figure 104 Graphic Convention for Figures

104.1 Dimensions.

Dimensions that are not stated as “maximum” or “minimum” are absolute.

104.1.1 Construction and Manufacturing Tolerances.

All dimensions are subject to conventional industry tolerances except where the requirement is stated as a range with specific minimum and maximum end points.

ETA Editor’s Note:

For additional information go to ADA Tolerances - Additional Resources or keyword search "Tolerance." 

Advisory 104.1.1 Construction and Manufacturing Tolerances. Conventional industry tolerances recognized by this provision include those for field conditions and those that may be a necessary consequence of a particular manufacturing process. Recognized tolerances are not intended to apply to design work.

It is good practice when specifying dimensions to avoid specifying a tolerance where dimensions are absolute. For example, if this document requires “1½ inches,” avoid specifying “1½ inches plus or minus X inches.”

Where the requirement states a specified range, such as in Section 609.4 where grab bars must be installed between 33 inches and 36 inches above the floor, the range provides an adequate tolerance and therefore no tolerance outside of the range at either end point is permitted.

Where a requirement is a minimum or a maximum dimension that does not have two specific minimum and maximum end points, tolerances may apply. Where an element is to be installed at the minimum or maximum permitted dimension, such as “15 inches minimum” or “5 pounds maximum”, it would not be good practice to specify “5 pounds (plus X pounds) or 15 inches (minus X inches).” Rather, it would be good practice to specify a dimension less than the required maximum (or more than the required minimum) by the amount of the expected field or manufacturing tolerance and not to state any tolerance in conjunction with the specified dimension.

Specifying dimensions in design in the manner described above will better ensure that facilities and elements accomplish the level of accessibility intended by these requirements. It will also more often produce an end result of strict and literal compliance with the stated requirements and eliminate enforcement difficulties and issues that might otherwise arise. Information on specific tolerances may be available from industry or trade organizations, code groups and building officials, and published references.

104.2 Calculation of Percentages.

Where the required number of elements or facilities to be provided is determined by calculations of ratios or percentages and remainders or fractions result, the next greater whole number of such elements or facilities shall be provided. Where the determination of the required size or dimension of an element or facility involves ratios or percentages, rounding down for values less than one half shall be permitted.

104.3 Figures.

Unless specifically stated otherwise, figures are provided for informational purposes only.

105.1 General.

The standards listed in 105.2 are incorporated by reference in this document and are part of the requirements to the prescribed extent of each such reference. The Director of the Federal Register has approved these standards for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the referenced standards may be inspected at the Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board, 1331 F Street, NW, Suite 1000, Washington, DC 20004; at the Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, Disability Rights Section, 1425 New York Avenue, NW, Washington, DC; at the Department of Transportation, 400 Seventh Street, SW, Room 10424, Washington DC; or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call (202) 741‒6030, or go to http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html.

105.2 Referenced Standards.

The specific edition of the standards listed below are referenced in this document. Where differences occur between this document and the referenced standards, this document applies.

105.2.1 ANSI/BHMA.

Copies of the referenced standards may be obtained from the Builders Hardware Manufacturers Association, 355 Lexington Avenue, 17th floor, New York, NY 10017 (http://www.buildershardware.com).

ANSI/BHMA A156.10‒1999 American National Standard for Power Operated Pedestrian Doors (see 404.3).

ANSI/BHMA A156.19‒1997 American National Standard for Power Assist and Low Energy Power Operated Doors (see 404.3, 408.3.2.1, and 409.3.1).

ANSI/BHMA A156.19‒2002 American National Standard for Power Assist and Low Energy Power Operated Doors (see 404.3, 408.3.2.1, and 409.3.1).

Advisory 105.2.1 ANSI/BHMA. ANSI/BHMA A156.10‒1999 applies to power operated doors for pedestrian use which open automatically when approached by pedestrians. Included are provisions intended to reduce the chance of user injury or entrapment.

ANSI/BHMA A156.19‒1997 and A156.19‒2002 applies to power assist doors, low energy power operated doors or low energy power open doors for pedestrian use not provided for in ANSI/BHMA A156.10 for Power Operated Pedestrian Doors. Included are provisions intended to reduce the chance of user injury or entrapment.

105.2.2 ASME.

Copies of the referenced standards may be obtained from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Three Park Avenue, New York, New York 10016 (http://www.asme.org).

ASME A17.1- 2000 Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators, including ASME A17.1a−2002 Addenda and ASME A17.1b−2003 Addenda (see 407.1, 408.1, 409.1, and 810.9).

ASME A18.1‒1999 Safety Standard for Platform Lifts and Stairway Chairlifts, including ASME A18.1a−2001 Addenda and ASME A18.1b−2001 Addenda (see 410.1).

ASME A18.1‒2003 Safety Standard for Platform Lifts and Stairway Chairlifts, (see 410.1).

Advisory 105.2.2 ASME. ASME A17.1‒2000 is used by local jurisdictions throughout the United States for the design, construction, installation, operation, inspection, testing, maintenance, alteration, and repair of elevators and escalators. The majority of the requirements apply to the operational machinery not seen or used by elevator passengers. ASME A17.1 requires a two-way means of emergency communications in passenger elevators. This means of communication must connect with emergency or authorized personnel and not an automated answering system. The communication system must be push button activated. The activation button must be permanently identified with the word “HELP.” A visual indication acknowledging the establishment of a communications link to authorized personnel must be provided. The visual indication must remain on until the call is terminated by authorized personnel. The building location, the elevator car number, and the need for assistance must be provided to authorized personnel answering the emergency call. The use of a handset by the communications system is prohibited. Only the authorized personnel answering the call can terminate the call. Operating instructions for the communications system must be provided in the elevator car.

The provisions for escalators require that at least two flat steps be provided at the entrance and exit of every escalator and that steps on escalators be demarcated by yellow lines 2 inches wide maximum along the back and sides of steps.

ASME A18.1‒1999 and ASME A18.1‒2003 address the design, construction, installation, operation, inspection, testing, maintenance and repair of lifts that are intended for transportation of persons with disabilities. Lifts are classified as: vertical platform lifts, inclined platform lifts, inclined stairway chairlifts, private residence vertical platform lifts, private residence inclined platform lifts, and private residence inclined stairway chairlifts.

This document does not permit the use of inclined stairway chairlifts which do not provide platforms because such lifts require the user to transfer to a seat.

ASME A18.1 contains requirements for runways, which are the spaces in which platforms or seats move. The standard includes additional provisions for runway enclosures, electrical equipment and wiring, structural support, headroom clearance (which is 80 inches minimum), lower level access ramps and pits. The enclosure walls not used for entry or exit are required to have a grab bar the full length of the wall on platform lifts. Access ramps are required to meet requirements similar to those for ramps in Chapter 4 of this document.

Each of the lift types addressed in ASME A18.1 must meet requirements for capacity, load, speed, travel, operating devices, and control equipment. The maximum permitted height for operable parts is consistent with Section 308 of this document. The standard also addresses attendant operation. However, Section 410.1 of this document does not permit attendant operation.

105.2.3 ASTM.

Copies of the referenced standards may be obtained from the American Society for Testing and Materials, 100 Bar Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania 19428 (http://www.astm.org).

ASTM F 1292‒99 Standard Specification for Impact Attenuation of Surface Systems Under and Around Playground Equipment (see 1008.2.6.2).

ASTM F 1292‒04 Standard Specification for Impact Attenuation of Surfacing Materials Within the Use Zone of Playground Equipment (see 1008.2.6.2).

ASTM F 1487‒01 Standard Consumer Safety Performance Specification for Playground Equipment for Public Use (see 106.5).

ASTM F 1951‒99 Standard Specification for Determination of Accessibility of Surface Systems Under and Around Playground Equipment (see 1008.2.6.1).

Advisory 105.2.3 ASTM. ASTM F 1292‒99 and ASTM F 1292‒04 establish a uniform means to measure and compare characteristics of surfacing materials to determine whether materials provide a safe surface under and around playground equipment. These standards are referenced in the play areas requirements of this document when an accessible surface is required inside a play area use zone where a fall attenuating surface is also required. The standards cover the minimum impact attenuation requirements, when tested in accordance with Test Method F 355, for surface systems to be used under and around any piece of playground equipment from which a person may fall.

ASTM F 1487‒01 establishes a nationally recognized safety standard for public playground equipment to address injuries identified by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission. It defines the use zone, which is the ground area beneath and immediately adjacent to a play structure or play equipment designed for unrestricted circulation around the equipment and on whose surface it is predicted that a user would land when falling from or exiting a play structure or equipment. The play areas requirements in this document reference the ASTM F 1487 standard when defining accessible routes that overlap use zones requiring fall attenuating surfaces. If the use zone of a playground is not entirely surfaced with an accessible material, at least one accessible route within the use zone must be provided from the perimeter to all accessible play structures or components within the playground.

ASTM F 1951‒99 establishes a uniform means to measure the characteristics of surface systems in order to provide performance specifications to select materials for use as an accessible surface under and around playground equipment. Surface materials that comply with this standard and are located in the use zone must also comply with ASTM F 1292. The test methods in this standard address access for children and adults who may traverse the surfacing to aid children who are playing. When a surface is tested it must have an average work per foot value for straight propulsion and for turning less than the average work per foot values for straight propulsion and for turning, respectively, on a hard, smooth surface with a grade of 7% (1:14).

105.2.4 ICC/IBC.

Copies of the referenced standard may be obtained from the International Code Council, 5203 Leesburg Pike, Suite 600, Falls Church, Virginia 22041 (www.iccsafe.org).

International Building Code, 2000 Edition (see 207.1, 207.2, 216.4.2, 216.4.3, and 1005.2.1).

International Building Code, 2001 Supplement (see 207.1 and 207.2).

International Building Code, 2003 Edition (see 207.1, 207.2, 216.4.2, 216.4.3, and 1005.2.1).

Advisory 105.2.4 ICC/IBC. International Building Code (IBC)−2000 (including 2001 Supplement to the International Codes) and IBC−2003 are referenced for means of egress, areas of refuge, and railings provided on fishing piers and platforms. At least one accessible means of egress is required for every accessible space and at least two accessible means of egress are required where more than one means of egress is required. The technical criteria for accessible means of egress allow the use of exit stairways and evacuation elevators when provided in conjunction with horizontal exits or areas of refuge. While typical elevators are not designed to be used during an emergency evacuation, evacuation elevators are designed with standby power and other features according to the elevator safety standard and can be used for the evacuation of individuals with disabilities. The IBC also provides requirements for areas of refuge, which are fire-rated spaces on levels above or below the exit discharge levels where people unable to use stairs can go to register a call for assistance and wait for evacuation.

The recreation facilities requirements of this document references two sections in the IBC for fishing piers and platforms. An exception addresses the height of the railings, guards, or handrails where a fishing pier or platform is required to include a guard, railing, or handrail higher than 34 inches (865 mm) above the ground or deck surface.

105.2.5 NFPA.

Copies of the referenced standards may be obtained from the National Fire Protection Association, 1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy, Massachusetts 02169‒7471, (http://www.nfpa.org).

NFPA 72 National Fire Alarm Code, 1999 Edition (see 702.1 and 809.5.2).

NFPA 72 National Fire Alarm Code, 2002 Edition (see 702.1 and 809.5.2).

Advisory 105.2.5 NFPA. NFPA 72‒1999 and NFPA 72‒2002 address the application, installation, performance, and maintenance of protective signaling systems and their components. The NFPA 72 incorporates Underwriters Laboratory (UL) 1971 by reference. The standard specifies the characteristics of audible alarms, such as placement and sound levels. However, Section 702 of these requirements limits the volume of an audible alarm to 110 dBA, rather than the maximum 120 dBA permitted by NFPA 72‒1999.

NFPA 72 specifies characteristics for visible alarms, such as flash frequency, color, intensity, placement, and synchronization. However, Section 702 of this document requires that visual alarm appliances be permanently installed. UL 1971 specifies intensity dispersion requirements for visible alarms. In particular, NFPA 72 requires visible alarms to have a light source that is clear or white and has polar dispersion complying with UL 1971.

106.1 General.

For the purpose of this document, the terms defined in 106.5 have the indicated meaning.

Advisory 106.1 General. Terms defined in Section 106.5 are italicized in the text of this document.

ETA Editor’s Note:

Terms defined in this Pocket Guide from DOJ Title II and Title III regulations are double underlined wherever they appear.

106.2 Terms Defined in Referenced Standards.

Terms not defined in 106.5 or in regulations issued by the Department of Justice and the Department of Transportation to implement the Americans with Disabilities Act, but specifically defined in a referenced standard, shall have the specified meaning from the referenced standard unless otherwise stated.

106.3 Undefined Terms.

The meaning of terms not specifically defined in 106.5 or in regulations issued by the Department of Justice and the Department of Transportation to implement the Americans with Disabilities Act or in referenced standards shall be as defined by collegiate dictionaries in the sense that the context implies.

106.4 Interchangeability.

Words, terms and phrases used in the singular include the plural and those used in the plural include the singular.

1991 Standards.

[35.104 & 36.104] Requirements set forth in the ADA Standards for Accessible Design, originally published on July 26, 1991, and republished as Appendix D to this part.

2004 ADAAG.

[35.104 & 36.104] The requirements set forth in appendices B and D to 36 CFR part 1191 (2009). 

2010 Standards.

[35.104] The 2010 ADA Standards for Accessible Design, which consist of the 2004 ADAAG and the requirements contained in 35.151.

2010 Standards.

[36.104] The 2010 ADA Standards for Accessible Design, which consist of the 2004 ADAAG and the requirements contained in subpart D of this part.

Accessible.

A site, building, facility, or portion thereof that complies with this part.

Accessible Means of Egress.

A continuous and unobstructed way of egress travel from any point in a building or facility that provides an accessible route to an area of refuge, a horizontal exit, or a public way.

Addition.

An expansion, extension, or increase in the gross floor area or height of a building or facility.

Administrative Authority.

A governmental agency that adopts or enforces regulations and guidelines for the design, construction, or alteration of buildings and facilities.

Alteration.

A change to a building or facility that affects or could affect the usability of the building or facility or portion thereof. Alterations include, but are not limited to, remodeling, renovation, rehabilitation, reconstruction, historic restoration, resurfacing of circulation paths or vehicular ways, changes or rearrangement of the structural parts or elements, and changes or rearrangement in the plan configuration of walls and full-height partitions. Normal maintenance, reroofing, painting or wallpapering, asbestos removal, [36.402(b)(1)] or changes to mechanical and electrical systems are not alterations unless they affect the usability of the building or facility.

Amusement Attraction.

Any facility, or portion of a facility, located within an amusement park or theme park which provides amusement without the use of an amusement device. Amusement attractions include, but are not limited to, fun houses, barrels, and other attractions without seats.

Amusement Ride.

A system that moves persons through a fixed course within a defined area for the purpose of amusement.

Amusement Ride Seat.

A seat that is built-in or mechanically fastened to an amusement ride intended to be occupied by one or more passengers.

Area of Sport Activity.

That portion of a room or space where the play or practice of a sport occurs.

Assembly Area.

A building or facility, or portion thereof, used for the purpose of entertainment, educational or civic gatherings, or similar purposes. For the purposes of these requirements, assembly areas include, but are not limited to, classrooms, lecture halls, courtrooms, public meeting rooms, public hearing rooms, legislative chambers, motion picture houses, auditoria, theaters, playhouses, dinner theaters, concert halls, centers for the performing arts, amphitheaters, arenas, stadiums, grandstands, or convention centers. [S.H. 3.5 Assembly Area]

Assistive Listening System (ALS).

An amplification system utilizing transmitters, receivers, and coupling devices to bypass the acoustical space between a sound source and a listener by means of induction loop, radio frequency, infrared, or direct-wired equipment.

Boarding Pier.

A portion of a pier where a boat is temporarily secured for the purpose of embarking or disembarking.

Boat Launch Ramp.

A sloped surface designed for launching and retrieving trailered boats and other water craft to and from a body of water.

Boat Slip.

That portion of a pier, main pier, finger pier, or float where a boat is moored for the purpose of berthing, embarking, or disembarking.

Building.

Any structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or occupancy.

Catch Pool.

A pool or designated section of a pool used as a terminus for water slide flumes.

Characters.

Letters, numbers, punctuation marks and typographic symbols.

Children’s Use.

Describes spaces and elements specifically designed for use primarily by people 12 years old and younger.

Circulation Path.

An exterior or interior way of passage provided for pedestrian travel, including but not limited to, walks, hallways, courtyards, elevators, platform lifts, ramps, stairways, and landings.

Closed-Circuit Telephone.

A telephone with a dedicated line such as a house phone, courtesy phone or phone that must be used to gain entry to a facility.

Commerce.

[36.104] Travel, trade, traffic, commerce, transportation, or communication –

(1) Among the several States;

(2) Between any foreign country or any territory or possession and any State; or

(3) Between points in the same State but through another State or foreign country.

Commercial Facilities.

[36.104] Facilities –

(1) Whose operations will affect commerce;

(2) That are intended for nonresidential use by a private entity; and

(3) That are not –

(i) Facilities that are covered or expressly exempted from coverage under the Fair Housing Act of 1968, as amended (42 U.S.C. 3601 - 3631);

(ii) Aircraft; or

(iii) Railroad locomotives, railroad freight cars, railroad cabooses, commuter or intercity passenger rail cars (including coaches, dining cars, sleeping cars, lounge cars, and food service cars), any other railroad cars described in section 242 of the Act or covered under title II of the Act, or railroad rights-of-way. For purposes of this definition, "rail" and "railroad" have the meaning given the term "railroad" in section 202(e) of the Federal Railroad Safety Act of 1970 (45 U.S.C. 431(e)). 

Common Use.

Interior or exterior circulation paths, rooms, spaces, or elements that are not for public use and are made available for the shared use of two or more people. [S.H. 3.5 Common Use]

Cross Slope.

The slope that is perpendicular to the direction of travel (see running slope).

Curb Ramp.

A short ramp cutting through a curb or built up to it.

Detectable Warning.

A standardized surface feature built in or applied to walking surfaces or other elements to warn of hazards on a circulation path.

Disability.

[35.104 & 36.104] With respect to an individual, a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of the major life activities of such individual; a record of such an impairment; or being regarded as having such an Impairment.

(1) The phrase physical or mental impairment means—

(i) Any physiological disorder or condition, cosmetic disfigurement, or anatomical loss affecting one or more of the following body systems: neurological, musculoskeletal, special sense organs, respiratory (including speech organs), cardiovascular, reproductive, digestive, genitourinary, hemic and lymphatic, skin, and endocrine;

(ii) Any mental or psychological disorder such as mental retardation, organic brain syndrome, emotional or mental illness, and specific learning disabilities.

(iii) The phrase physical or mental impairment  includes, but is not limited to, such contagious and noncontagious diseases and conditions as orthopedic, visual, speech and hearing impairments, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, muscular dystrophy, multiple sclerosis, cancer, heart disease, diabetes, mental retardation, emotional illness, specific learning disabilities, HIV disease (whether symptomatic or asymptomatic), tuberculosis, drug addiction, and alcoholism.

(iv) The phrase physical or mental impairment does not include homosexuality or bisexuality.

(2) The phrase major life activities means functions such as caring for one's self, performing manual tasks, walking, seeing, hearing, speaking, breathing, learning, and working.

(3) The phrase has a record of such an impairment means has a history of, or has been misclassified as having, a mental or physical impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities.

(4) The phrase is regarded as having an impairment means—

(i) Has a physical or mental impairment that does not substantially limit major life activities but that is treated by a public entity as constituting such a limitation;

(ii) Has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits major life activities only as a result of the attitudes of others toward such impairment; or

(iii) Has none of the impairments defined in paragraph (1) of this definition but is treated by a public entity as having such an impairment.

(5) The term disability does not include—

(i) Transvestism, transsexualism, pedophilia, exhibitionism, voyeurism, gender identity disorders not resulting from physical impairments, or other sexual behavior disorders;

(ii) Compulsive gambling, kleptomania, or pyromania; or

(iii) Psychoactive substance use disorders resulting from current illegal use of drugs.

Element.

An architectural or mechanical component of a building, facility, space, or site.

Elevated Play Component.

A play component that is approached above or below grade and that is part of a composite play structure consisting of two or more play components attached or functionally linked to create an integrated unit providing more than one play activity.

Employee Work Area.

All or any portion of a space used only by employees and used only for work. Corridors, toilet rooms, kitchenettes and break rooms are not employee work areas.

Entrance.

Any access point to a building or portion of a building or facility used for the purpose of entering. An entrance includes the approach walk, the vertical access leading to the entrance platform, the entrance platform itself, vestibule if provided, the entry door or gate, and the hardware of the entry door or gate.

Existing Facility.

[35.104 & 36.104] A facility in existence on any given date, without regard to whether the facility may also be considered newly constructed or altered under this part.

Facility.

All or any portion of buildings, structures, site improvements, elements, and pedestrian routes or vehicular ways located on a site.

Gangway.

A variable-sloped pedestrian walkway that links a fixed structure or land with a floating structure. Gangways that connect to vessels are not addressed by this document.

Golf Car Passage.

A continuous passage on which a motorized golf car can operate.

Ground Level Play Component.

A play component that is approached and exited at the ground level.

Housing at a Place of Education.

[35.104 & 36.104] Housing operated by or on behalf of an elementary, secondary, undergraduate, or postgraduate school, or other place of education, including dormitories, suites, apartments, or other places of residence. 

Key Station.

Rapid and light rail stations, and commuter rail stations, as defined under criteria established by the Department of Transportation in 49 CFR 37.47 and 49 CFR 37.51, respectively.

Mail Boxes.

Receptacles for the receipt of documents, packages, or other deliverable matter. Mail boxes include, but are not limited to, post office boxes and receptacles provided by commercial mail-receiving agencies, apartment facilities, or schools.

Marked Crossing.

A crosswalk or other identified path intended for pedestrian use in crossing a vehicular way.

Maximum Extent Feasible.

[36.402(c)] The phrase "to the maximum extent feasible," as used in this section, applies to the occasional case where the nature of an existing facility makes it virtually impossible to comply fully with applicable accessibility standards through a planned alteration. In these circumstances, the alteration shall provide the maximum physical accessibility feasible. Any altered features of the facility that can be made accessible shall be made accessible. If providing accessibility in conformance with this section to individuals with certain disabilities (e.g., those who use wheelchairs) would not be feasible, the facility shall be made accessible to persons with other types of disabilities (e.g., those who use crutches, those who have impaired vision or hearing, or those who have other impairments). 

Mezzanine.

An intermediate level or levels between the floor and ceiling of any story with an aggregate floor area of not more than one-third of the area of the room or space in which the level or levels are located. Mezzanines have sufficient elevation that space for human occupancy can be provided on the floor below. [S.H. 3.5 Mezzanine]

Occupant Load.

The number of persons for which the means of egress of a building or portion of a building is designed.

Operable Part.

A component of an element used to insert or withdraw objects, or to activate, deactivate, or adjust the element.

Path of Travel.

[35.151(b)(4)(ii) & 36.403(e)]

(1) A "path of travel" includes a continuous, unobstructed way of pedestrian passage by means of which the altered area may be approached, entered, and exited, and which connects the altered area with an exterior approach (including sidewalks, streets, and parking areas), an entrance to the facility, and other parts of the facility.

(2) An accessible path of travel may consist of walks and sidewalks, curb ramps and other interior or exterior pedestrian ramps; clear floor paths through lobbies, corridors, rooms, and other improved areas; parking access aisles; elevators and lifts; or a combination of these elements.

(3) For the purposes of this part, the term "path of travel" also includes the restrooms, telephones, and drinking fountains serving the altered area. 

ETA Editor's Note:

"Accessible path of travel" is used at all times.

Pictogram.

A pictorial symbol that represents activities, facilities, or concepts.

Place of Public Accommodation.

[36.104] A facility operated by a private entity whose operations affect commerce and fall within at least one of the following categories –

(1) Place of lodging, except for an establishment located within a facility that contains not more than five rooms for rent or hire and that actually is occupied by the proprietor of the establishment as the residence of the proprietor. For purposes of this part, a facility is a "place of lodging" if it is –

(i) An inn, hotel, or motel; or

(ii) A facility that –

(A) Provides guest rooms for sleeping for stays that primarily are short-term in nature (generally 30 days or less) where the occupant does not have the right to return to a specific room or unit after the conclusion of his or her stay; and

(B) Provides guest rooms under conditions and with amenities similar to a hotel, motel, or inn, including the following –

          1. On- or off-site management and reservations service;

          2. Rooms available on a walk-up or call-in basis;

          3. Availability of housekeeping or linen service; and

          4. Acceptance of reservations for a guest room type without guaranteeing a particular unit or room until check-in, and without a prior lease or security deposit.

(2) A restaurant, bar, or other establishment serving food or drink;

(3) A motion picture house, theater, concert hall, stadium, or other place of exhibition or entertainment;

(4) An auditorium, convention center, lecture hall, or other place of public gathering;

(5) A bakery, grocery store, clothing store, hardware store, shopping center, or other sales or rental establishment;

(6) A laundromat, dry-cleaner, bank, barber shop, beauty shop, travel service, shoe repair service, funeral parlor, gas station, office of an accountant or lawyer, pharmacy, insurance office, professional office of a health care provider, hospital, or other service establishment;

(7) A terminal, depot, or other station used for specified public transportation;

(8) A museum, library, gallery, or other place of public display or collection;

(9) A park, zoo, amusement park, or other place of recreation;

(10) A nursery, elementary, secondary, undergraduate, or postgraduate private school, or other place of education;

(11) A day care center, senior citizen center, homeless shelter, food bank, adoption agency, or other social service center establishment; and

(12) A gymnasium, health spa, bowling alley, golf course, or other place of exercise or recreation.

Play Area.

A portion of a site containing play components designed and constructed for children.

Play Component.

An element intended to generate specific opportunities for play, socialization, or learning. Play components are manufactured or natural; and are stand-alone or part of a composite play structure.

Primary Function.

[35.151(b)(4)(i)] & 36.403(b)]

A major activity for which the facility is intended. Areas that contain a primary function include, but are not limited to, [the customer services lobby of a bank, 36.403(b)], the dining area of a cafeteria, the meeting rooms in a conference center, as well as offices and other work areas in which the activities of the public accommodation or other private entity using the facility are carried out. Mechanical rooms, boiler rooms, supply storage rooms, employee lounges or locker rooms, janitorial closets, entrances, corridors, and restrooms are not areas containing a primary function. [Restrooms are not areas containing a primary function unless the provision of restrooms is a primary purpose of the area, e.g., in highway rest stops. 35.151(b)(4)(i)(A)

Private Building or Facility.

A place of public accommodation or a commercial building or facility subject to title III of the ADA and 28 CFR part 36 or a transportation building or facility subject to title III of the ADA and 49 CFR 37.45.

Private Entity.

[36.104] A person or entity other than a public entity

Public Building or Facility.

A building or facility or portion of a building or facility designed, constructed, or altered by, on behalf of, or for the use of a public entity subject to title II of the ADA and 28 CFR part 35 or to title II of the ADA and 49 CFR 37.41 or 37.43.

Public Entity.

[36.104]

(1) Any State or local government;

(2) Any department, agency, special purpose district, or other instrumentality of a State or States or local government; and

(3) The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, and any commuter authority (as defined in section 103(8) of the Rail Passenger Service Act). (45 U.S.C. 541)

Public Entrance.

An entrance that is not a service entrance or a restricted entrance.

Public Use.

Interior or exterior rooms, spaces, or elements that are made available to the public. Public use may be provided at a building or facility that is privately or publicly owned.

Public Way.

Any street, alley or other parcel of land open to the outside air leading to a public street, which has been deeded, dedicated or otherwise permanently appropriated to the public for public use and which has a clear width and height of not less than 10 feet (3050 mm).

Qualified Historic Building or Facility.

A building or facility that is listed in or eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places, or designated as historic under an appropriate State or local law.

Ramp.

A walking surface that has a running slope steeper than 1:20.

Readily Achievable.

[36.104] Easily accomplishable and able to be carried out without much difficulty or expense. In determining whether an action is readily achievable factors to be considered include –

(1) The nature and cost of the action needed under this part;

(2) The overall financial resources of the site or sites involved in the action; the number of persons employed at the site; the effect on expenses and resources; legitimate safety requirements that are necessary for safe operation, including crime prevention measures; or the impact otherwise of the action upon the operation of the site;

(3) The geographic separateness, and the administrative or fiscal relationship of the site or sites in question to any parent corporation or entity;

(4) If applicable, the overall financial resources of any parent corporation or entity; the overall size of the parent corporation or entity with respect to the number of its employees; the number, type, and location of its facilities; and

(5) If applicable, the type of operation or operations of any parent corporation or entity, including the composition, structure, and functions of the workforce of the parent corporation or entity. 

Residential Dwelling Unit.

A unit intended to be used as a residence, that is primarily long-term in nature. Residential dwelling units do not include transient lodging, inpatient medical care, licensed long-term care, and detention or correctional facilities.

Restricted Entrance.

An entrance that is made available for common use on a controlled basis but not public use and that is not a service entrance.

Running Slope.

The slope that is parallel to the direction of travel (see cross slope).

Self-Service Storage.

Building or facility designed and used for the purpose of renting or leasing individual storage spaces to customers for the purpose of storing and removing personal property on a self-service basis.

Service Entrance.

An entrance intended primarily for delivery of goods or services.

Shopping Center / Mall.

[36.401(d)(1)(ii)]

(A) A building housing five or more sales or rental establishments; or

(B) A series of buildings on a common site, either under common ownership or common control or developed either as one project or as a series of related projects, housing five or more sales or rental establishments. For purposes of this section, places of public accommodation of the types listed in paragraph (5) of the definition of "place of public accommodation" in section § 36.104 are considered sales or rental establishments. The facility housing a "shopping center or shopping mall" only includes floor levels housing at least one sales or rental establishment, or any floor level designed or intended for use by at least one sales or rental establishment. 

Site.

A parcel of land bounded by a property line or a designated portion of a public right-of-way.

Soft Contained Play Structure.

A play structure made up of one or more play components where the user enters a fully enclosed play environment that utilizes pliable materials, such as plastic, netting, or fabric.

Space.

A definable area, such as a room, toilet room, hall, assembly area, entrance, storage room, alcove, courtyard, or lobby.

State.

[35.104 & 36.104] Each of the several States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. 

Story.

That portion of a building or facility designed for human occupancy included between the upper surface of a floor and upper surface of the floor or roof next above. A story containing one or more mezzanines has more than one floor level.

Structural Frame.

The columns and the girders, beams, and trusses having direct connections to the columns and all other members that are essential to the stability of the building or facility as a whole.

Tactile.

An object that can be perceived using the sense of touch.

Technically Infeasible.

With respect to an alteration of a building or a facility, something that has little likelihood of being accomplished because existing structural conditions would require removing or altering a load-bearing member that is an essential part of the structural frame; or because other existing physical or site constraints prohibit modification or addition of elements, spaces, or features that are in full and strict compliance with the minimum requirements.

Teeing Ground.

In golf, the starting place for the hole to be played.

Transfer Device.

Equipment designed to facilitate the transfer of a person from a wheelchair or other mobility aid to and from an amusement ride seat.

Transient Lodging.

A building or facility containing one or more guest room(s) for sleeping that provides accommodations that are primarily short-term in nature. Transient lodging does not include residential dwelling units intended to be used as a residence, inpatient medical care facilities, licensed long-term care facilities, detention or correctional facilities, or private buildings or facilities that contain not more than five rooms for rent or hire and that are actually occupied by the proprietor as the residence of such proprietor. [S.H. 3.5 Transient Lodging]

Transition Plate.

A sloping pedestrian walking surface located at the end(s) of a gangway.

TTY.

An abbreviation for teletypewriter. Machinery that employs interactive text-based communication through the transmission of coded signals across the telephone network. TTYs may include, for example, devices known as TDDs (telecommunication display devices or telecommunication devices for deaf persons) or computers with special modems. TTYs are also called text telephones. [S.H. 3.5 Text Telephone]

Use Zone.

The ground level area beneath and immediately adjacent to a play structure or play equipment that is designated by ASTM F 1487 (incorporated by reference, see “Referenced Standards” in Chapter 1) for unrestricted circulation around the play equipment and where it is predicted that a user would land when falling from or exiting the play equipment.

Vehicular Way.

A route provided for vehicular traffic, such as in a street, driveway, or parking facility.

Walk.

An exterior prepared surface for pedestrian use, including pedestrian areas such as plazas and courts.

Wheelchair.

[35.104 & 36.104] A manually-operated or power-driven device designed primarily for use by an individual with a mobility disability for the main purpose of indoor or of both indoor and outdoor locomotion. This definition does not apply to Federal wilderness areas; wheelchairs in such areas are defined in section 508(c)(2) of the ADA, 42 U.S.C. 12207(c)(2). 

Wheelchair Space.

Space for a single wheelchair and its occupant.

Work Area Equipment.

Any machine, instrument, engine, motor, pump, conveyor, or other apparatus used to perform work. As used in this document, this term shall apply only to equipment that is permanently installed or built-in in employee work areas. Work area equipment does not include passenger elevators and other accessible means of vertical transportation.

201.1 Scope.

All areas of newly designed and newly constructed buildings and facilities and altered portions of existing buildings and facilities shall comply with these requirements.

35.151(d) New Construction and Alterations; Scope of Coverage

36.406(b) Standards for New Construction and Alterations; Scope of Coverage.

The 1991 Standards and the 2010 Standards apply to fixed or built-in elements of buildings, structures, site improvements, and pedestrian routes or vehicular ways located on a site. Unless specifically stated otherwise, the advisory notes, appendix notes, and figures contained in the 1991 Standards and 2010 Standards explain or illustrate the requirements of the rule; they do not establish enforceable requirements. 

ETA Editor’s Note: 

Although the ADA Standards apply to "fixed or built-in elements", the requirements of the Standards are also used to inform the analysis of the accessibility of movable elements that are covered by the regulations. 

For example, the requirements of the Title III regulations at 36.302(a) obligate public accommodations to "make reasonable modifications in policies, practices, or procedures, when the modifications are necessary to afford goods, services, facilities, privileges, advantages, or accommodations to individuals with disabilities, unless the public accommodation can demonstrate that making the modifications would fundamentally alter the nature of the goods, services, facilities, privileges, advantages, or accommodations."  Modifying a practice of buying tables with insufficient knee clearances when compared to the Standard for fixed tables would likely be considered reasonable. 

Similarly, section 36.304 requires the removal of barriers where such removal is readily achievable.  36.304(b)(4) gives the example of "Rearranging tables, chairs, vending machines, display racks, and other furniture".  Rearranging them to provide sufficient clear widths to allow wheelchair maneuvering is one method of barrier removal and the required clear width to become accessible can be determined by reading the Standards. (See also 36.304(d)(1)

Advisory 201.1 Scope. These requirements are to be applied to all areas of a facility unless exempted, or where scoping limits the number of multiple elements required to be accessible. For example, not all medical care patient rooms are required to be accessible; those that are not required to be accessible are not required to comply with these requirements. However, common use and public use spaces such as recovery rooms, examination rooms, and cafeterias are not exempt from these requirements and must be accessible.

201.2 Application Based on Building or Facility Use.

Where a site, building, facility, room, or space contains more than one use, each portion shall comply with the applicable requirements for that use.

36.401(b) New Construction; Commercial Facilities Located in Private Residences

(1) When a commercial facility is located in a private residence, the portion of the residence used exclusively as a residence is not covered by this subpart, but that portion used exclusively in the operation of the commercial facility or that portion used both for the commercial facility and for residential purposes is covered by the new construction and alterations requirements of this subpart.

(2) The portion of the residence covered under paragraph (b)(1) of this section extends to those elements used to enter the commercial facility, including the homeowner´s front sidewalk, if any, the door or entryway, and hallways; and those portions of the residence, interior or exterior, available to or used by employees or visitors of the commercial facility, including restrooms. 

201.3 Temporary and Permanent Structures.

These requirements shall apply to temporary and permanent buildings and facilities.

Advisory 201.3 Temporary and Permanent Structures. Temporary buildings or facilities covered by these requirements include, but are not limited to, reviewing stands, temporary classrooms, bleacher areas, stages, platforms and daises, fixed furniture systems, wall systems, and exhibit areas, temporary banking facilities, and temporary health screening facilities. Structures and equipment directly associated with the actual processes of construction are not required to be accessible as permitted in 203.2.

202.1 General.

Additions and alterations to existing buildings or facilities shall comply with 202.

202.2 Additions.

Each addition to an existing building or facility shall comply with the requirements for new construction. Each addition that affects or could affect the usability of or access to an area containing a primary function shall comply with 202.4.

202.3 Alterations.

Where existing elements or spaces or common areas [36.402(b)(2)] are altered, each altered element or space or area shall comply with the applicable requirements of Chapter 2.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Unless required by 202.4, where elements or spaces are altered and the circulation path to the altered element or space is not altered, an accessible route shall not be required.

2. In alterations, where compliance with applicable requirements is technically infeasible, the alteration shall comply with the requirements to the maximum extent feasible.

3. Residential dwelling units not required to be accessible in compliance with a standard issued pursuant to the Americans with Disabilities Act or Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended, shall not be required to comply with 202.3.

35.151(b) New Construction and Alterations; Alterations.

(1) Each facility or part of a facility altered by, on behalf of, or for the use of a public entity in a manner that affects or could affect the usability of the facility or part of the facility shall, to the maximum extent feasible, be altered in such manner that the altered portion of the facility is readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities, if the alteration was commenced after January 26, 1992.

36.402(a) Alterations; General.

(1) Any alteration to a place of public accommodation or a commercial facility, after January 26, 1992, shall be made so as to ensure that, to the maximum extent feasible, the altered portions of the facility are readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities, including individuals who use wheelchairs.

(2) An alteration is deemed to be undertaken after January 26, 1992, if the physical alteration of the property begins after that date. 

Advisory 202.3 Alterations. Although covered entities are permitted to limit the scope of an alteration to individual elements, the alteration of multiple elements within a room or space may provide a cost-effective opportunity to make the entire room or space accessible. Any elements or spaces of the building or facility that are required to comply with these requirements must be made accessible within the scope of the alteration, to the maximum extent feasible. If providing accessibility in compliance with these requirements for people with one type of disability (e.g., people who use wheelchairs) is not feasible, accessibility must still be provided in compliance with the requirements for people with other types of disabilities (e.g., people who have hearing impairments or who have vision impairments) to the extent that such accessibility is feasible.

202.3.1 Prohibited Reduction in Access.

An alteration that decreases or has the effect of decreasing the accessibility of a building or facility below the requirements for new construction at the time of the alteration is prohibited.

35.133 Maintenance of accessible features.

36.211 Maintenance of accessible features.

(c) If the 2010 Standards reduce the technical requirements or the number of required accessible elements below the number required by the 1991 Standards, the technical requirements or the number of accessible elements in a facility subject to this part may be reduced in accordance with the requirements of the 2010 Standards

202.3.2 Extent of Application.

An alteration of an existing element, space, or area of a building or facility shall not impose a requirement for accessibility greater than required for new construction.

202.4 Alterations Affecting Primary Function Areas.

In addition to the requirements of 202.3, an alteration that affects or could affect the usability of or access to an area containing a primary function shall be made so as to ensure that, to the maximum extent feasible, the path of travel to the altered area, including the rest rooms, telephones, and drinking fountains serving the altered area, are readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities, unless such alterations are disproportionate to the overall alterations in terms of cost and scope as determined under criteria established by the Attorney General. Alterations to windows, hardware, controls, electrical outlets, and signage shall not be deemed to be alterations that affect the usability of or access to an area containing a primary function. [35.151(b)(4)(i)(B) & 36.403(c)(2)] In existing transportation facilities, an area of primary function shall be as defined under regulations published by the Secretary of the Department of Transportation or the Attorney General. [S.H. 4.1.6(1)(i)]

EXCEPTION: Residential dwelling units shall not be required to comply with 202.4.

35.151(b)(4) New Construction and Alterations; Alterations; Path of Travel

(ii)(C) Safe harbor. If a public entity has constructed or altered required elements of a path of travel in accordance with the specifications in either the 1991 Standards or the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards before March 15, 2012, the public entity is not required to retrofit such elements to reflect incremental changes in the 2010 Standards solely because of an alteration to a primary function area served by that path of travel.

36.403 Alterations: Path of Travel

(a) General

(2) If a private entity has constructed or altered required elements of a path of travel at a place of public accommodation or commercial facility in accordance with the specifications in the 1991 Standards, the private entity is not required to retrofit such elements to reflect the incremental changes in the 2010 Standards solely because of an alteration to a primary function area served by that path of travel

(c) Alterations to an Area Containing a Primary Function.

(1) Alterations that affect the usability of or access to an area containing a primary function include but are not limited to:

(i) Remodeling merchandise display areas or employee work areas in a department store;

(ii) Replacing an inaccessible floor surface in the customer service or employee work areas of a bank;

(iii) Redesigning the assembly line area of a factory; or

(iv) Installing a computer center in an accounting firm.

(d) Landlord/tenant: If a tenant is making alterations as defined in §36.402 that would trigger the requirements of this section, those alterations by the tenant in areas that only the tenant occupies do not trigger a path of travel obligation upon the landlord with respect to areas of the facility under the landlord´s authority, if those areas are not otherwise being altered.

35.151(b) New Construction and Alterations; Alterations.

(2) The path of travel requirements of §35.151(b)(4) shall apply only to alterations undertaken solely for purposes other than to meet the program accessibility requirements of §35.150.

36.304(d) Removal of Barriers; Relationship to Alterations Requirements of Subpart D of this Part.

(1) . . . The path of travel requirements of §36.403 shall not apply to measures taken solely to comply with the barrier removal requirements.

35.151(b)(4)(iii)(B) New Construction and Alterations; Alterations; . . . .Disproportionality

36.403(f) Alterations: Path of Travel; Disproportionality (subsections below are numbered per 36.403(f)).

(1) Alterations made to provide an accessible path of travel to the altered area will be deemed disproportionate to the overall alteration when the cost exceeds 20% of the cost of the alteration to the primary function area.

(2) Costs that may be counted as expenditures required to provide an accessible path of travel may include:

(i) Costs associated with providing an accessible entrance and an accessible route to the altered area, for example, the cost of widening doorways or installing ramps;

(ii) Costs associated with making restrooms accessible, such as installing grab bars, enlarging toilet stalls, insulating pipes, or installing accessible faucet controls;

(iii) Costs associated with providing accessible telephones, such as relocating the telephone to an accessible height, installing amplification devices, or installing a text telephone (TTY);

(iv) Costs associated with relocating an inaccessible drinking fountain.

35.151(b)(4)(iv) New Construction and Alterations; Alterations; . . . .Duty to Provide Accessible Features in the Event of Disproportionality

36.403(g) Alterations: Path of Travel; Duty to Provide Accessible Features in the Event of Disproportionality (subsections below are numbered per 36.403(g)).

(1) When the cost of alterations necessary to make the path of travel to the altered area fully accessible is disproportionate to the cost of the overall alteration, the path of travel shall be made accessible to the extent that it can be made accessible without incurring disproportionate costs.

(2) In choosing which accessible elements to provide, priority should be given to those elements that will provide the greatest access, in the following order:

(i) An accessible entrance;

(ii) An accessible route to the altered area;

(iii) At least one accessible restroom for each sex or a single unisex restroom;

(iv) Accessible telephones;

(v) Accessible drinking fountains; and

(vi) When possible, additional accessible elements such as parking, storage, and alarms. 

35.151(b)(4)(v) New Construction and Alterations; Alterations; . . . . Series of Smaller Alterations.

(A) The obligation to provide an accessible path of travel may not be evaded by performing a series of small alterations to the area served by a single path of travel if those alterations could have been performed as a single undertaking.

(B)(1) If an area containing a primary function has been altered without providing an accessible path of travel to that area, and subsequent alterations of that area, or a different area on the same path of travel, are undertaken within three years of the original alteration, the total cost of alterations to the primary function areas on that path of travel during the preceding three year period shall be considered in determining whether the cost of making that path of travel accessible is disproportionate.

(2) Only alterations undertaken on or after March 15, 2011 shall be considered in determining if the cost of providing an accessible path of travel is disproportionate to the overall cost of the alterations.

36.403(h) Alterations: Path of Travel; Series of Smaller Alterations.

(1) The obligation to provide an accessible path of travel may not be evaded by performing a series of small alterations to the area served by a single path of travel if those alterations could have been performed as a single undertaking.

(2)(i) If an area containing a primary function has been altered without providing an accessible path of travel to that area, and subsequent alterations of that area, or a different area on the same path of travel, are undertaken within three years of the original alteration, the total cost of alterations to the primary function areas on that path of travel during the preceding three year period shall be considered in determining whether the cost of making that path of travel accessible is disproportionate.

(ii) Only alterations undertaken after January 26, 1992, shall be considered in determining if the cost of providing an accessible path of travel is disproportionate to the overall cost of the alterations.

Advisory 202.4 Alterations Affecting Primary Function Areas. An area of a building or facility containing a major activity for which the building or facility is intended is a primary function area. Department of Justice ADA regulations state, “Alterations made to provide an accessible path of travel to the altered area will be deemed disproportionate to the overall alteration when the cost exceeds 20% of the cost of the alteration to the primary function area.” (28 CFR 36.403 (f)(1)). See also Department of Transportation ADA regulations, which use similar concepts in the context of public sector transportation facilities (49 CFR 37.43 (e)(1)).

There can be multiple areas containing a primary function in a single building. Primary function areas are not limited to public use areas. For example, both a bank lobby and the bank’s employee areas such as the teller areas and walk-in safe are primary function areas. Also, mixed use facilities may include numerous primary function areas for each use. Areas containing a primary function do not include: mechanical rooms, boiler rooms, supply storage rooms, employee lounges or locker rooms, janitorial closets, entrances, corridors, or restrooms.

202.5 Alterations to Qualified Historic Buildings and Facilities.

Alterations to a qualified historic building or facility shall comply with 202.3 and 202.4.

EXCEPTION: Where the State Historic Preservation Officer or Advisory Council on Historic Preservation determines that compliance with the requirements for accessible routes, entrances, or toilet facilities would threaten or destroy the historic significance of the building or facility, the exceptions for alterations to qualified historic buildings or facilities for that element shall be permitted to apply.

35.151(b) New Construction and Alterations; Alterations.

(3)(i) Alterations to historic properties shall comply, to the maximum extent feasible, with the provisions applicable to historic properties in the design standards specified in §35.151(c).

(ii) If it is not feasible to provide physical access to an historic property in a manner that will not threaten or destroy the historic significance of the building or facility, alternative methods of access shall be provided pursuant to the requirements of §35.150.

36.405 Alterations: Historic Preservation.

(a) Alterations to buildings or facilities that are eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places under the National Historic Preservation Act (16 U.S.C. 470 et seq) or are designated as historic under State or local law, shall comply to the maximum extent feasible with this part.

(b) If it is determined that it is not feasible to provide physical access to an historic property that is a place of public accommodation in a manner that will not threaten or destroy the historic significance of the building or the facility, alternative methods of access shall be provided pursuant to the requirements of subpart C of this part. 

Advisory 202.5 Alterations to Qualified Historic Buildings and Facilities Exception. State Historic Preservation Officers are State appointed officials who carry out certain responsibilities under the National Historic Preservation Act. State Historic Preservation Officers consult with Federal and State agencies, local governments, and private entities on providing access and protecting significant elements of qualified historic buildings and facilities. There are exceptions for alterations to qualified historic buildings and facilities for accessible routes (206.2.1 Exception 1 and 206.2.3 Exception 7); entrances (206.4 Exception 2); and toilet facilities (213.2 Exception 2). When an entity believes that compliance with the requirements for any of these elements would threaten or destroy the historic significance of the building or facility, the entity should consult with the State Historic Preservation Officer. If the State Historic Preservation Officer agrees that compliance with the requirements for a specific element would threaten or destroy the historic significance of the building or facility, use of the exception is permitted. Public entities have an additional obligation to achieve program accessibility under the Department of Justice ADA regulations. See 28 CFR 35.150. These regulations require public entities that operate historic preservation programs to give priority to methods that provide physical access to individuals with disabilities. If alterations to a qualified historic building or facility to achieve program accessibility would threaten or destroy the historic significance of the building or facility, fundamentally alter the program, or result in undue financial or administrative burdens, the Department of Justice ADA regulations allow alternative methods to be used to achieve program accessibility. In the case of historic preservation programs, such as an historic house museum, alternative methods include using audio-visual materials to depict portions of the house that cannot otherwise be made accessible. In the case of other qualified historic properties, such as an historic government office building, alternative methods include relocating programs and services to accessible locations. The Department of Justice ADA regulations also allow public entities to use alternative methods when altering qualified historic buildings or facilities in the rare situations where the State Historic Preservation Officer determines that it is not feasible to provide physical access using the exceptions permitted in Section 202.5 without threatening or destroying the historic significance of the building or facility. See 28 CFR.35.151(d) The AccessAbility Office at the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) provides a variety of resources for museum operators and historic properties including: the Design for Accessibility Guide and the Disability Symbols. Contact NEA about these and other resources at (202) 682‒5532 or www.arts.gov.

203.1 General.

Sites, buildings, facilities, and elements are exempt from these requirements to the extent specified by 203.

35.151(a)(2) New Construction and Alterations; Design and Construction; Exception for Structural Impracticability

36.401(c) New Construction; Exception for Structural Impracticability (subsections below are numbered per 36.401(c)).

(1) Full compliance with the requirements of this section is not required where a public entity can demonstrate that it is structurally impracticable to meet the requirements. Full compliance will be considered structurally impracticable only in those rare circumstances when the unique characteristics of terrain prevent the incorporation of accessibility features.

(2) If full compliance with this section would be structurally impracticable, compliance with this section is required to the extent that it is not structurally impracticable. In that case, any portion of the facility that can be made accessible shall be made accessible to the extent that it is not structurally impracticable.

(3) If providing accessibility in conformance with this section to individuals with certain disabilities (e.g., those who use wheelchairs) would be structurally impracticable, accessibility shall nonetheless be ensured to persons with other types of disabilities, (e.g., those who use crutches or who have sight, hearing, or mental impairments) in accordance with this section.

203.2 Construction Sites.

Structures and sites directly associated with the actual processes of construction, including but not limited to, scaffolding, bridging, materials hoists, materials storage, and construction trailers shall not be required to comply with these requirements or to be on an accessible route. Portable toilet units provided for use exclusively by construction personnel on a construction site shall not be required to comply with 213 or to be on an accessible route.

203.3 Raised Areas.

Areas raised primarily for purposes of security, life safety, or fire safety, including but not limited to, observation or lookout galleries, prison guard towers, fire towers, or life guard stands shall not be required to comply with these requirements or to be on an accessible route.

203.4 Limited Access Spaces.

Spaces accessed only by ladders, catwalks, crawl spaces, or very narrow passageways shall not be required to comply with these requirements or to be on an accessible route.

203.5 Machinery Spaces.

Spaces frequented only by service personnel for maintenance, repair, or occasional monitoring of equipment shall not be required to comply with these requirements or to be on an accessible route. Machinery spaces include, but are not limited to, elevator pits or elevator penthouses; mechanical, electrical or communications equipment rooms; piping or equipment catwalks; water or sewage treatment pump rooms and stations; electric substations and transformer vaults; and highway and tunnel utility facilities.

203.6 Single Occupant Structures.

Single occupant structures accessed only by passageways below grade or elevated above standard curb height, including but not limited to, toll booths that are accessed only by underground tunnels, shall not be required to comply with these requirements or to be on an accessible route.

203.7 Detention and Correctional Facilities.

In detention and correctional facilities, common use areas that are used only by inmates or detainees and security personnel and that do not serve holding cells or housing cells required to comply with 232, shall not be required to comply with these requirements or to be on an accessible route.

203.8 Residential Facilities.

In residential facilities, common use areas that do not serve residential dwelling units required to provide mobility features complying with 809.2 through 809.4 shall not be required to comply with these requirements or to be on an accessible route.

203.9 Employee Work Areas.

Spaces and elements within employee work areas shall only be required to comply with 206.2.8, 207.1, and 215.3 and shall be designed and constructed so that individuals with disabilities can approach, enter, and exit the employee work area. Employee work areas, or portions of employee work areas, other than raised courtroom stations, that are less than 300 square feet (28 m2) and elevated 7 inches (180 mm) or more above the finish floor or ground where the elevation is essential to the function of the space shall not be required to comply with these requirements or to be on an accessible route.

Advisory 203.9 Employee Work Areas. Although areas used exclusively by employees for work are not required to be fully accessible, consider designing such areas to include non-required turning spaces, and provide accessible elements whenever possible. Under the ADA, employees with disabilities are entitled to reasonable accommodations in the workplace; accommodations can include alterations to spaces within the facility. Designing employee work areas to be more accessible at the outset will avoid more costly retrofits when current employees become temporarily or permanently disabled, or when new employees with disabilities are hired. Contact the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) at www.eeoc.gov for information about title I of the ADA prohibiting discrimination against people with disabilities in the workplace.

203.10 Raised Refereeing, Judging, and Scoring Areas.

Raised structures used solely for refereeing, judging, or scoring a sport shall not be required to comply with these requirements or to be on an accessible route.

203.11 Water Slides.

Water slides shall not be required to comply with these requirements or to be on an accessible route.

203.12 Animal Containment Areas.

Animal containment areas that are not for public use shall not be required to comply with these requirements or to be on an accessible route.

Advisory 203.12 Animal Containment Areas. Public circulation routes where animals may travel, such as in petting zoos and passageways alongside animal pens in State fairs, are not eligible for the exception.

203.13 Raised Boxing or Wrestling Rings.

Raised boxing or wrestling rings shall not be required to comply with these requirements or to be on an accessible route.

203.14 Raised Diving Boards and Diving Platforms.

Raised diving boards and diving platforms shall not be required to comply with these requirements or to be on an accessible route.

204.1 General.

Protruding objects on circulation paths shall comply with 307.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Within areas of sport activity, protruding objects on circulation paths shall not be required to comply with 307.

2. Within play areas, protruding objects on circulation paths shall not be required to comply with 307 provided that ground level accessible routes provide vertical clearance in compliance with 1008.2.

205.1 General.

Operable parts on accessible elements, accessible routes, and in accessible rooms and spaces shall comply with 309.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Operable parts that are intended for use only by service or maintenance personnel shall not be required to comply with 309.

2. Electrical or communication receptacles serving a dedicated use shall not be required to comply with 309.

3. Where two or more outlets are provided in a kitchen above a length of counter top that is uninterrupted by a sink or appliance, one outlet shall not be required to comply with 309.

4. Floor electrical receptacles shall not be required to comply with 309.

5. HVAC diffusers shall not be required to comply with 309.

6. Except for light switches, where redundant controls are provided for a single element, one control in each space shall not be required to comply with 309.

7. Cleats and other boat securement devices shall not be required to comply with 309.3.

8. Exercise machines and exercise equipment shall not be required to comply with 309.

Advisory 205.1 General. Controls covered by 205.1 include, but are not limited to, light switches, circuit breakers, duplexes and other convenience receptacles, environmental and appliance controls, plumbing fixture controls, and security and intercom systems.

206.1 General.

Accessible routes shall be provided in accordance with 206 and shall comply with Chapter 4.

206.2 Where Required.

Accessible routes shall be provided where required by 206.2.

206.2.1 Site Arrival Points.

At least one accessible route shall be provided within the site from accessible parking spaces and accessible passenger loading zones; public streets and sidewalks; and public transportation stops to the accessible building or facility entrance they serve.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Where exceptions for alterations to qualified historic buildings or facilities are permitted by 202.5, no more than one accessible route from a site arrival point to an accessible entrance shall be required.

2. An accessible route shall not be required between site arrival points and the building or facility entrance if the only means of access between them is a vehicular way not providing pedestrian access.

Advisory 206.2.1 Site Arrival Points. Each site arrival point must be connected by an accessible route to the accessible building entrance or entrances served. Where two or more similar site arrival points, such as bus stops, serve the same accessible entrance or entrances, both bus stops must be on accessible routes. In addition, the accessible routes must serve all of the accessible entrances on the site.

Advisory 206.2.1 Site Arrival Points Exception 2. Access from site arrival points may include vehicular ways. Where a vehicular way, or a portion of a vehicular way, is provided for pedestrian travel, such as within a shopping center or shopping mall parking lot, this exception does not apply.

35.151(i) New Construction and Alterations; Curb Ramps.

(1) Newly constructed or altered streets, roads, and highways must contain curb ramps or other sloped areas at any intersection having curbs or other barriers to entry from a street level pedestrian walkway.

(2) Newly constructed or altered street level pedestrian walkways must contain curb ramps or other sloped areas at intersections to streets, roads, or highways.  

 ETA Editor’s Note:

Requirements for curb ramps, sidewalks and other elements in the public right of way may be covered by other Federal, State or local standards and regulations. The U.S. Department of Transportation and most State departments of transportation are revising their design standards and regulations for the public right of way based on recent research and guidelines being developed by the U.S. Access Board and the Federal Highway Administration. It is the responsibility of the design professional to comply with these public right of way requirements.

206.2.2 Within a Site.

At least one accessible route shall connect accessible buildings, accessible facilities, accessible elements, and accessible spaces that are on the same site.

EXCEPTION: An accessible route shall not be required between accessible buildings, accessible facilities, accessible elements, and accessible spaces if the only means of access between them is a vehicular way not providing pedestrian access.

Advisory 206.2.2 Within a Site. An accessible route is required to connect to the boundary of each area of sport activity. Examples of areas of sport activity include: soccer fields, basketball courts, baseball fields, running tracks, skating rinks, and the area surrounding a piece of gymnastic equipment. While the size of an area of sport activity may vary from sport to sport, each includes only the space needed to play. Where multiple sports fields or courts are provided, an accessible route is required to each field or area of sport activity.

206.2.3 Multi-Story Buildings and Facilities.

At least one accessible route shall connect each story and mezzanine in multi-story buildings and facilities.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. In private buildings or facilities that are less than three stories or that have less than 3000 square feet (279 m2) per story, an accessible route shall not be required to connect stories provided that the building or facility is not a shopping center, a shopping mall, the professional office of a health care provider, a terminal, depot or other station used for specified public transportation, an airport passenger terminal, or another type of facility as determined by the Attorney General.

2. Where a two story public building or facility has one story with an occupant load of five or fewer persons that does not contain public use space, that story shall not be required to be connected to the story above or below.

3. In detention and correctional facilities, an accessible route shall not be required to connect stories where cells with mobility features required to comply with 807.2, all common use areas serving cells with mobility features required to comply with 807.2, and all public use areas are on an accessible route.

4. In residential facilities, an accessible route shall not be required to connect stories where residential dwelling units with mobility features required to comply with 809.2 through 809.4, all common use areas serving residential dwelling units with mobility features required to comply with 809.2 through 809.4, and public use areas serving residential dwelling units are on an accessible route.

5. Within multi-story transient lodging guest rooms with mobility features required to comply with 806.2, an accessible route shall not be required to connect stories provided that spaces complying with 806.2 are on an accessible route and sleeping accommodations for two persons minimum are provided on a story served by an accessible route.

6. In air traffic control towers, an accessible route shall not be required to serve the cab and the floor immediately below the cab.

7. Where exceptions for alterations to qualified historic buildings or facilities are permitted by 202.5, an accessible route shall not be required to stories located above or below the accessible story.

36.401(d) New Construction; Elevator Exemption

(1) For purposes of this paragraph (d) –

(i) Professional office of a health care provider means a location where a person or entity regulated by a State to provide professional services related to the physical or mental health of an individual makes such services available to the public. The facility housing the "professional office of a health care provider" only includes floor levels housing by [sic] at least one health care provider, or any floor level designed or intended for use by at least one health care provider.

(ii) Shopping center or shopping mall means –

(A) A building housing five or more sales or rental establishments; or

(B) A series of buildings on a common site, either under common ownership or common control or developed either as one project or as a series of related projects, housing five or more sales or rental establishments. For purposes of this section, places of public accommodation of the types listed in paragraph (5) of the definition of "place of public accommodation" in section 36.104 are considered sales or rental establishments. The facility housing a "shopping center or shopping mall" only includes floor levels housing at least one sales or rental establishment, or any floor level designed or intended for use by at least one sales or rental establishment.

(2) This section does not require the installation of an elevator in a facility that is less than three stories or has less than 3000 square feet per story, except with respect to any facility that houses one or more of the following:

(i) A shopping center or shopping mall, or a professional office of a health care provider.

(ii) A terminal, depot, or other station used for specified public transportation, or an airport passenger terminal. In such a facility, any area housing passenger services, including boarding and debarking, loading and unloading, baggage claim, dining facilities, and other common areas open to the public, must be on an accessible route from an accessible entrance.

(3) The elevator exemption set forth in this paragraph (d) does not obviate or limit, in any way the obligation to comply with the other accessibility requirements established in paragraph (a) of this section. For example, in a facility that houses a shopping center or shopping mall, or a professional office of a health care provider, the floors that are above or below an accessible ground floor and that do not house sales or rental establishments or a professional office of a health care provider, must meet the requirements of this section but for the elevator.

36.404 Alterations: Elevator Exemption.

(a) This section does not require the installation of an elevator in an altered facility that is less than three stories or has less than 3,000 square feet per story except with respect to any facility that houses a shopping center, a shopping mall, the professional office of a health care provider, a terminal, depot, or other station used for specified public transportation, or an airport passenger terminal.

(1) For the purposes of this section, "professional office of a health care provider" means a location where a person or entity regulated by a State to provide professional services related to the physical or mental health of an individual makes such services available to the public. The facility that houses a "professional office of a health care provider" only includes floor levels housing by [sic] at least one health care provider, or any floor level designed or intended for use by at least one health care provider.

(2) For the purposes of this section, shopping center or shopping mall means –

(i) A building housing five or more sales or rental establishments; or

(ii) A series of buildings on a common site, connected by a common pedestrian access route above or below the ground floor, that is either under common ownership or common control or developed either as one project or as a series of related projects, housing five or more sales or rental establishments. For purposes of this section, places of public accommodation of the types listed in paragraph (5) of the definition of "place of public accommodation" in § 36.104 are considered sales or rental establishments. The facility housing a "shopping center or shopping mall" only includes floor levels housing at least one sales or rental establishment, or any floor level designed or intended for use by at least one sales or rental establishment.

(b) The exemption provided in paragraph (a) of this section does not obviate or limit in any way the obligation to comply with the other accessibility requirements established in this subpart. For example, alterations to floors above or below the accessible ground floor must be accessible regardless of whether the altered facility has an elevator. 

Advisory 206.2.3 Multi-Story Buildings and Facilities. Spaces and elements located on a level not required to be served by an accessible route must fully comply with this document. While a mezzanine may be a change in level, it is not a story. If an accessible route is required to connect stories within a building or facility, the accessible route must serve all mezzanines.

Advisory 206.2.3 Multi-Story Buildings and Facilities Exception 4. Where common use areas are provided for the use of residents, it is presumed that all such common use areas “serve” accessible dwelling units unless use is restricted to residents occupying certain dwelling units. For example, if all residents are permitted to use all laundry rooms, then all laundry rooms "serve" accessible dwelling units. However, if the laundry room on the first floor is restricted to use by residents on the first floor, and the second floor laundry room is for use by occupants of the second floor, then first floor accessible units are “served” only by laundry rooms on the first floor. In this example, an accessible route is not required to the second floor provided that all accessible units and all common use areas serving them are on the first floor.

206.2.3.1 Stairs and Escalators in Existing Buildings.

In alterations and additions, where an escalator or stair is provided where none existed previously and major structural modifications are necessary for the installation, an accessible route shall be provided between the levels served by the escalator or stair unless exempted by 206.2.3 Exceptions 1 through 7.

206.2.4 Spaces and Elements.

At least one accessible route shall connect accessible building or facility entrances with all accessible spaces and elements within the building or facility which are otherwise connected by a circulation path unless exempted by 206.2.3 Exceptions 1 through 7.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Raised courtroom stations, including judges' benches, clerks' stations, bailiffs' stations, deputy clerks' stations, and court reporters' stations shall not be required to provide vertical access provided that the required clear floor space, maneuvering space, and, if appropriate, electrical service are installed at the time of initial construction to allow future installation of a means of vertical access complying with 405, 407, 408, or 410 without requiring substantial reconstruction of the space.

2. In assembly areas with fixed seating required to comply with 221, an accessible route shall not be required to serve fixed seating where wheelchair spaces required to be on an accessible route are not provided.

3. Accessible routes shall not be required to connect mezzanines where buildings or facilities have no more than one story. In addition, accessible routes shall not be required to connect stories or mezzanines where multi-story buildings or facilities are exempted by 206.2.3 Exceptions 1 through 7.

Advisory 206.2.4 Spaces and Elements. Accessible routes must connect all spaces and elements required to be accessible including, but not limited to, raised areas and speaker platforms.

Advisory 206.2.4 Spaces and Elements Exception 1. The exception does not apply to areas that are likely to be used by members of the public who are not employees of the court such as jury areas, attorney areas, or witness stands.

206.2.5 Restaurants and Cafeterias.

In restaurants and cafeterias, an accessible route shall be provided to all dining areas, including raised or sunken dining areas, and outdoor dining areas.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. In buildings or facilities not required to provide an accessible route between stories, an accessible route shall not be required to a mezzanine dining area where the mezzanine contains less than 25 percent of the total combined area for seating and dining and where the same decor and services are provided in the accessible area. [S.H. 5.4]

2. In alterations, an accessible route shall not be required to existing raised or sunken dining areas, or to all parts of existing outdoor dining areas where the same services and decor are provided in an accessible space usable by the public and not restricted to use by people with disabilities.

3. In sports facilities, tiered dining areas providing seating required to comply with 221 shall be required to have accessible routes serving at least 25 percent of the dining area provided that accessible routes serve seating complying with 221 and each tier is provided with the same services.

Advisory 206.2.5 Restaurants and Cafeterias Exception 2. Examples of “same services” include, but are not limited to, bar service, rooms having smoking and non-smoking sections, lotto and other table games, carry-out, and buffet service. Examples of “same decor” include, but are not limited to, seating at or near windows and railings with views, areas designed with a certain theme, party and banquet rooms, and rooms where entertainment is provided.

206.2.6 Performance Areas.

Where a circulation path directly connects a performance area to an assembly seating area, an accessible route shall directly connect the assembly seating area with the performance area. An accessible route shall be provided from performance areas to ancillary areas or facilities used by performers unless exempted by 206.2.3 Exceptions 1 through 7.

206.2.7 Press Boxes.

Press boxes in assembly areas shall be on an accessible route.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. An accessible route shall not be required to press boxes in bleachers that have points of entry at only one level provided that the aggregate area of all press boxes is 500 square feet (46 m2) maximum.

2. An accessible route shall not be required to free-standing press boxes that are elevated above grade 12 feet (3660 mm) minimum provided that the aggregate area of all press boxes is 500 square feet (46 m2) maximum.

Advisory 206.2.7 Press Boxes Exception 2. Where a facility contains multiple assembly areas, the aggregate area of the press boxes in each assembly area is to be calculated separately. For example, if a university has a soccer stadium with three press boxes elevated 12 feet (3660 mm) or more above grade and each press box is 150 square feet (14 m2), then the aggregate area of the soccer stadium press boxes is less than 500 square feet (46 m2) and Exception 2 applies to the soccer stadium. If that same university also has a football stadium with two press boxes elevated 12 feet (3660 mm) or more above grade and one press box is 250 square feet (23 m2), and the second is 275 square feet (26 m2), then the aggregate area of the football stadium press boxes is more than 500 square feet (46 m2) and Exception 2 does not apply to the football stadium.

206.2.8 Employee Work Areas.

Common use circulation paths within employee work areas shall comply with 402. [S.H. 4.1.1(3)]

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Common use circulation paths located within employee work areas that are less than 1000 square feet (93 m2) and defined by permanently installed partitions, counters, casework, or furnishings shall not be required to comply with 402.

2. Common use circulation paths located within employee work areas that are an integral component of work area equipment shall not be required to comply with 402.

3. Common use circulation paths located within exterior employee work areas that are fully exposed to the weather shall not be required to comply with 402.

Advisory 206.2.8 Employee Work Areas Exception 1. Modular furniture that is not permanently installed is not directly subject to these requirements. The Department of Justice ADA regulations provide additional guidance regarding the relationship between these requirements and elements that are not part of the built environment. Additionally, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) implements title I of the ADA which requires non-discrimination in the workplace. EEOC can provide guidance regarding employers’ obligations to provide reasonable accommodations for employees with disabilities.

Advisory 206.2.8 Employee Work Areas Exception 2. Large pieces of equipment, such as electric turbines or water pumping apparatus, may have stairs and elevated walkways used for overseeing or monitoring purposes which are physically part of the turbine or pump. However, passenger elevators used for vertical transportation between stories are not considered “work area equipment” as defined in Section 106.5.

206.2.9 Amusement Rides.

Amusement rides required to comply with 234 shall provide accessible routes in accordance with 206.2.9. Accessible routes serving amusement rides shall comply with Chapter 4 except as modified by 1002.2.

206.2.9.1 Load and Unload Areas.

Load and unload areas shall be on an accessible route. Where load and unload areas have more than one loading or unloading position, at least one loading and unloading position shall be on an accessible route.

206.2.9.2 Wheelchair Spaces, Ride Seats Designed for Transfer, and Transfer Devices.

When amusement rides are in the load and unload position, wheelchair spaces complying with 1002.4, amusement ride seats designed for transfer complying with 1002.5, and transfer devices complying with 1002.6 shall be on an accessible route.

206.2.10 Recreational Boating Facilities.

Boat slips required to comply with 235.2 and boarding piers at boat launch ramps required to comply with 235.3 shall be on an accessible route. Accessible routes serving recreational boating facilities shall comply with Chapter 4, except as modified by 1003.2.

206.2.11 Bowling Lanes.

Where bowling lanes are provided, at least 5 percent, but no fewer than one of each type of bowling lane, shall be on an accessible route.

206.2.12 Court Sports.

In court sports, at least one accessible route shall directly connect both sides of the court.

206.2.13 Exercise Machines and Equipment.

Exercise machines and equipment required to comply with 236 shall be on an accessible route.

206.2.14 Fishing Piers and Platforms.

Fishing piers and platforms shall be on an accessible route. Accessible routes serving fishing piers and platforms shall comply with Chapter 4 except as modified by 1005.1.

206.2.15 Golf Facilities.

At least one accessible route shall connect accessible elements and spaces within the boundary of the golf course. In addition, accessible routes serving golf car rental areas; bag drop areas; course weather shelters complying with 238.2.3; course toilet rooms; and practice putting greens, practice teeing grounds, and teeing stations at driving ranges complying with 238.3 shall comply with Chapter 4 except as modified by 1006.2.

EXCEPTION: Golf car passages complying with 1006.3 shall be permitted to be used for all or part of accessible routes required by 206.2.15.

206.2.16 Miniature Golf Facilities.

Holes required to comply with 239.2, including the start of play, shall be on an accessible route. Accessible routes serving miniature golf facilities shall comply with Chapter 4 except as modified by 1007.2.

206.2.17 Play Areas.

Play areas shall provide accessible routes in accordance with 206.2.17. Accessible routes serving play areas shall comply with Chapter 4 except as modified by 1008.2.

206.2.17.1 Ground Level and Elevated Play Components.

At least one accessible route shall be provided within the play area. The accessible route shall connect ground level play components required to comply with 240.2.1 and elevated play components required to comply with 240.2.2, including entry and exit points of the play components.

206.2.17.2 Soft Contained Play Structures.

Where three or fewer entry points are provided for soft contained play structures, at least one entry point shall be on an accessible route. Where four or more entry points are provided for soft contained play structures, at least two entry points shall be on an accessible route.

206.3 Location.

Accessible routes shall coincide with or be located in the same area as general circulation paths. Where circulation paths are interior, required accessible routes shall also be interior. [S.H. 4.3.2]

Access Board’s Note to Reader:

The Department of Transportation’s ADA standards include additional requirements for the location of accessible routes:

206.3 Location. Accessible routes shall coincide with, or be located in the same area as general circulation paths. Where circulation paths are interior, required accessible routes shall also be interior. Elements such as ramps, elevators, or other circulation devices, fare vending or other ticketing areas, and fare collection areas shall be placed to minimize the distance which wheelchair users and other persons who cannot negotiate steps may have to travel compared to the general public.

Advisory 206.3 Location. The accessible route must be in the same area as the general circulation path. This means that circulation paths, such as vehicular ways designed for pedestrian traffic, walks, and unpaved paths that are designed to be routinely used by pedestrians must be accessible or have an accessible route nearby. Additionally, accessible vertical interior circulation must be in the same area as stairs and escalators, not isolated in the back of the facility.

206.4 Entrances.

Entrances shall be provided in accordance with 206.4. Entrance doors, doorways, and gates shall comply with 404 and shall be on an accessible route complying with 402.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Where an alteration includes alterations to an entrance, and the building or facility has another entrance complying with 404 that is on an accessible route, the altered entrance shall not be required to comply with 206.4 unless required by 202.4.

2. Where exceptions for alterations to qualified historic buildings or facilities are permitted by 202.5, no more than one public entrance shall be required to comply with 206.4. Where no public entrance can comply with 206.4 under criteria established in 202.5 Exception, then either an unlocked entrance not used by the public shall comply with 206.4; or a locked entrance complying with 206.4 with a notification system or remote monitoring shall be provided.

206.4.1 Public Entrances.

In addition to entrances required by 206.4.2 through 206.4.9, at least 60 percent of all public entrances shall comply with 404. [S.H. 4.1.3(8)(a)(i)]

206.4.2 Parking Structure Entrances.

Where direct access is provided for pedestrians from a parking structure to a building or facility entrance, each direct access to the building or facility entrance shall comply with 404. [S.H. 4.1.3(8)(b)(i)]

206.4.3 Entrances from Tunnels or Elevated Walkways.

Where direct access is provided for pedestrians from a pedestrian tunnel or elevated walkway to a building or facility, at least one direct entrance to the building or facility from each tunnel or walkway shall comply with 404.

206.4.4 Transportation Facilities.

In addition to the requirements of 206.4.2, 206.4.3, and 206.4.5 through 206.4.9, transportation facilities shall provide entrances in accordance with 206.4.4.

206.4.4.1 Location.

In transportation facilities, where different entrances serve different transportation fixed routes or groups of fixed routes, at least one public entrance serving each fixed route or group of fixed routes shall comply with 404.

EXCEPTION: Entrances to key stations and existing intercity rail stations retrofitted in accordance with 49 CFR 37.49 or 49 CFR 37.51 shall not be required to comply with 206.4.4.1.

206.4.4.2 Direct Connections.

Direct connections to other facilities shall provide an accessible route complying with 404 from the point of connection to boarding platforms and all transportation system elements required to be accessible. Any elements provided to facilitate future direct connections shall be on an accessible route connecting boarding platforms and all transportation system elements required to be accessible.

EXCEPTION: In key stations and existing intercity rail stations, existing direct connections shall not be required to comply with 404.

206.4.4.3 Key Stations and Intercity Rail Stations.

Key stations and existing intercity rail stations required by Subpart C of 49 CFR part 37 to be altered, shall have at least one entrance complying with 404.

206.4.5 Tenant Spaces.

At least one accessible entrance to each tenancy in a facility shall comply with 404.

EXCEPTION: Self-service storage facilities not required to comply with 225.3 shall not be required to be on an accessible route.

206.4.6 Residential Dwelling Unit Primary Entrance.

In residential dwelling units, at least one primary entrance shall comply with 404. The primary entrance to a residential dwelling unit shall not be to a bedroom.

206.4.7 Restricted Entrances.

Where restricted entrances are provided to a building or facility, at least one restricted entrance to the building or facility shall comply with 404.

206.4.8 Service Entrances.

If a service entrance is the only entrance to a building or to a tenancy in a facility, that entrance shall comply with 404.

206.4.9 Entrances for Inmates or Detainees.

Where entrances used only by inmates or detainees and security personnel are provided at judicial facilities, detention facilities, or correctional facilities, at least one such entrance shall comply with 404.

206.5 Doors, Doorways, and Gates.

Doors, doorways, and gates providing user passage shall be provided in accordance with 206.5.

206.5.1 Entrances.

Each entrance to a building or facility required to comply with 206.4 shall have at least one door, doorway, or gate complying with 404.

206.5.2 Rooms and Spaces.

Within a building or facility, at least one door, doorway, or gate serving each room or space complying with these requirements shall comply with 404.

206.5.3 Transient Lodging Facilities.

In transient lodging facilities, entrances, doors, and doorways providing user passage into and within guest rooms that are not required to provide mobility features complying with 806.2 shall comply with 404.2.3.

EXCEPTION: Shower and sauna doors in guest rooms that are not required to provide mobility features complying with 806.2 shall not be required to comply with 404.2.3.

206.5.4 Residential Dwelling Units.

In residential dwelling units required to provide mobility features complying with 809.2 through 809.4, all doors and doorways providing user passage shall comply with 404.

206.6 Elevators.

Elevators provided for passengers shall comply with 407. Where multiple elevators are provided, each elevator shall comply with 407.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. In a building or facility permitted to use the exceptions to 206.2.3 or permitted by 206.7 to use a platform lift, elevators complying with 408 shall be permitted.

2. Elevators complying with 408 or 409 shall be permitted in multi-story residential dwelling units.

206.6.1 Existing Elevators.

Where elements of existing elevators are altered, the same element shall also be altered in all elevators that are programmed to respond to the same hall call control as the altered elevator and shall comply with the requirements of 407 for the altered element.

206.7 Platform Lifts.

Platform lifts shall comply with 410. Platform lifts shall be permitted as a component of an accessible route in new construction in accordance with 206.7. Platform lifts shall be permitted as a component of an accessible route in an existing building or facility.

206.7.1 Performance Areas and Speakers' Platforms.

Platform lifts shall be permitted to provide accessible routes to performance areas and speakers’ platforms.

206.7.2 Wheelchair Spaces.

Platform lifts shall be permitted to provide an accessible route to comply with the wheelchair space dispersion and line-of-sight requirements of 221 and 802.

206.7.3 Incidental Spaces.

Platform lifts shall be permitted to provide an accessible route to incidental spaces which are not public use spaces and which are occupied by five persons maximum.

206.7.4 Judicial Spaces.

Platform lifts shall be permitted to provide an accessible route to: jury boxes and witness stands; raised courtroom stations including, judges' benches, clerks' stations, bailiffs' stations, deputy clerks' stations, and court reporters' stations; and to depressed areas such as the well of a court.

206.7.5 Existing Site Constraints.

Platform lifts shall be permitted where existing exterior site constraints make use of a ramp or elevator infeasible.

Advisory 206.7.5 Existing Site Constraints. This exception applies where topography or other similar existing site constraints necessitate the use of a platform lift as the only feasible alternative. While the site constraint must reflect exterior conditions, the lift can be installed in the interior of a building. For example, a new building constructed between and connected to two existing buildings may have insufficient space to coordinate floor levels and also to provide ramped entry from the public way. In this example, an exterior or interior platform lift could be used to provide an accessible entrance or to coordinate one or more interior floor levels.

206.7.6 Guest Rooms and Residential Dwelling Units.

Platform lifts shall be permitted to connect levels within transient lodging guest rooms required to provide mobility features complying with 806.2 or residential dwelling units required to provide mobility features complying with 809.2 through 809.4.

206.7.7 Amusement Rides.

Platform lifts shall be permitted to provide accessible routes to load and unload areas serving amusement rides.

206.7.8 Play Areas.

Platform lifts shall be permitted to provide accessible routes to play components or soft contained play structures.

206.7.9 Team or Player Seating.

Platform lifts shall be permitted to provide accessible routes to team or player seating areas serving areas of sport activity.

Advisory 206.7.9 Team or Player Seating. While the use of platform lifts is allowed, ramps are recommended to provide access to player seating areas serving an area of sport activity.

206.7.10 Recreational Boating Facilities and Fishing Piers and Platforms.

Platform lifts shall be permitted to be used instead of gangways that are part of accessible routes serving recreational boating facilities and fishing piers and platforms.

206.8 Security Barriers.

Security barriers, including but not limited to, security bollards and security check points, shall not obstruct a required accessible route or accessible means of egress. [S.H. 7.4]

EXCEPTION: Where security barriers incorporate elements that cannot comply with these requirements such as certain metal detectors, fluoroscopes, or other similar devices, the accessible route shall be permitted to be located adjacent to security screening devices. The accessible route shall permit persons with disabilities passing around security barriers to maintain visual contact with their personal items to the same extent provided others passing through the security barrier.

207.1 General.

Means of egress shall comply with section 1003.2.13 of the International Building Code (2000 edition and 2001 Supplement) or section 1007 of the International Building Code (2003 edition) (incorporated by reference, see “Referenced Standards” in Chapter 1).

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Where means of egress are permitted by local building or life safety codes to share a common path of egress travel, accessible means of egress shall be permitted to share a common path of egress travel.

2. Areas of refuge shall not be required in detention and correctional facilities.

207.2 Platform Lifts.

Standby power shall be provided for platform lifts permitted by section 1003.2.13.4 of the International Building Code (2000 edition and 2001 Supplement) or section 1007.5 of the International Building Code (2003 edition) (incorporated by reference, see “Referenced Standards” in Chapter 1) to serve as a part of an accessible means of egress.

208.1 General.

Where parking spaces are provided, parking spaces shall be provided in accordance with 208.

EXCEPTION: Parking spaces used exclusively for buses, trucks, other delivery vehicles, law enforcement vehicles, or vehicular impound shall not be required to comply with 208 provided that lots accessed by the public are provided with a passenger loading zone complying with 503.

208.2 Minimum Number.

Parking spaces complying with 502 shall be provided in accordance with Table 208.2 except as required by 208.2.1, 208.2.2, and 208.2.3. Where more than one parking facility is provided on a site, the number of accessible spaces provided on the site shall be calculated according to the number of spaces required for each parking facility.

Table 208.2 Parking Spaces
Total Number of Parking Spaces Provided in Parking Facility Minimum Number of Required Accessible Parking Spaces
1 to 25 1
26 to 50 2
51 to 75 3
76 to 100 4
101 to 150 5
151 to 200 6
201 to 300 7
301 to 400 8
401 to 500 9
501 to 1000 2 percent of total
1001 and over 20, plus 1 for each 100, or fraction thereof, over 1000

Advisory 208.2 Minimum Number. The term “parking facility” is used Section 208.2 instead of the term “parking lot” so that it is clear that both parking lots and parking structures are required to comply with this section. The number of parking spaces required to be accessible is to be calculated separately for each parking facility; the required number is not to be based on the total number of parking spaces provided in all of the parking facilities provided on the site.  

208.2.1 Hospital Outpatient Facilities.

Ten percent of patient and visitor parking spaces provided to serve hospital outpatient facilities shall comply with 502.

Advisory 208.2.1 Hospital Outpatient Facilities. The term “outpatient facility” is not defined in this document but is intended to cover facilities or units that are located in hospitals and that provide regular and continuing medical treatment without an overnight stay. Doctors' offices, independent clinics, or other facilities not located in hospitals are not considered hospital outpatient facilities for purposes of this document.

208.2.2 Rehabilitation Facilities and Outpatient Physical Therapy Facilities.

Twenty percent of patient and visitor parking spaces provided to serve rehabilitation facilities specializing in treating conditions that affect mobility and outpatient physical therapy facilities shall comply with 502.

Advisory 208.2.2 Rehabilitation Facilities and Outpatient Physical Therapy Facilities. Conditions that affect mobility include conditions requiring the use or assistance of a brace, cane, crutch, prosthetic device, wheelchair, or powered mobility aid; arthritic, neurological, or orthopedic conditions that severely limit one's ability to walk; respiratory diseases and other conditions which may require the use of portable oxygen; and cardiac conditions that impose significant functional limitations.

208.2.3 Residential Facilities.

Parking spaces provided to serve residential facilities shall comply with 208.2.3.

208.2.3.1 Parking for Residents.

Where at least one parking space is provided for each residential dwelling unit, at least one parking space complying with 502 shall be provided for each residential dwelling unit required to provide mobility features complying with 809.2 through 809.4

208.2.3.2 Additional Parking Spaces for Residents.

Where the total number of parking spaces provided for each residential dwelling unit exceeds one parking space per residential dwelling unit, 2 percent, but no fewer than one space, of all the parking spaces not covered by 208.2.3.1 shall comply with 502.

208.2.3.3 Parking for Guests, Employees, and Other Non-Residents.

Where parking spaces are provided for persons other than residents, parking shall be provided in accordance with Table 208.2.

208.2.4 Van Parking Spaces.

For every six or fraction of six parking spaces required by 208.2 to comply with 502, at least one shall be a van parking space complying with 502. [S.H. 4.1.2(5)(b)]

208.3 Location.

Parking facilities shall comply with 208.3 [sic]

208.3.1 General.

Parking spaces complying with 502 that serve a particular building or facility shall be located on the shortest accessible route from parking to an entrance complying with 206.4. Where parking serves more than one accessible entrance, parking spaces complying with 502 shall be dispersed and located on the shortest accessible route to the accessible entrances. In parking facilities that do not serve a particular building or facility, parking spaces complying with 502 shall be located on the shortest accessible route to an accessible pedestrian entrance of the parking facility.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. All van parking spaces shall be permitted to be grouped on one level within a multi-story parking facility.

2. Parking spaces shall be permitted to be located in different parking facilities if substantially equivalent or greater accessibility is provided in terms of distance from an accessible entrance or entrances, parking fee, and user convenience.

Advisory 208.3.1 General Exception 2. Factors that could affect “user convenience” include, but are not limited to, protection from the weather, security, lighting, and comparative maintenance of the alternative parking site.

208.3.2 Residential Facilities.

In residential facilities containing residential dwelling units required to provide mobility features complying with 809.2 through 809.4, parking spaces provided in accordance with 208.2.3.1 shall be located on the shortest accessible route to the residential dwelling unit entrance they serve. Spaces provided in accordance with 208.2.3.2 shall be dispersed throughout all types of parking provided for the residential dwelling units.

EXCEPTION: Parking spaces provided in accordance with 208.2.3.2 shall not be required to be dispersed throughout all types of parking if substantially equivalent or greater accessibility is provided in terms of distance from an accessible entrance, parking fee, and user convenience.

Advisory 208.3.2 Residential Facilities Exception. Factors that could affect “user convenience” include, but are not limited to, protection from the weather, security, lighting, and comparative maintenance of the alternative parking site.

209.1 General.

Passenger loading zones shall be provided in accordance with 209.

209.2 Type.

Where provided, passenger loading zones shall comply with 209.2.

209.2.1 Passenger Loading Zones.

Passenger loading zones, except those required to comply with 209.2.2 and 209.2.3, shall provide at least one passenger loading zone complying with 503 in every continuous 100 linear feet (30 m) of loading zone space, or fraction thereof. [S.H. 4.1.2(5)(c)]

209.2.2 Bus Loading Zones.

In bus loading zones restricted to use by designated or specified public transportation vehicles, each bus bay, bus stop, or other area designated for lift or ramp deployment shall comply with 810.2.

Advisory 209.2.2 Bus Loading Zones. The terms “designated public transportation” and “specified public transportation” are defined by the Department of Transportation at 49 CFR 37.3 in regulations implementing the Americans with Disabilities Act. These terms refer to public transportation services provided by public or private entities, respectively. For example, designated public transportation vehicles include buses and vans operated by public transit agencies, while specified public transportation vehicles include tour and charter buses, taxis and limousines, and hotel shuttles operated by private entities.

209.2.3 On-Street Bus Stops.

On-street bus stops shall comply with 810.2 to the maximum extent practicable.

209.3 Medical Care and Long-Term Care Facilities.

At least one passenger loading zone complying with 503 shall be provided at an accessible entrance to licensed medical care and licensed long-term care facilities where the period of stay exceeds twenty-four hours.

209.4 Valet Parking.

Parking facilities that provide valet parking services shall provide at least one passenger loading zone complying with 503.

209.5 Mechanical Access Parking Garages.

Mechanical access parking garages shall provide at least one passenger loading zone complying with 503 at vehicle drop-off and vehicle pick-up areas.

210.1 General.

Interior and exterior stairs that are part of a means of egress shall comply with 504. [S.H. 4.1.3(4)]

EXCEPTIONS: 1. In detention and correctional facilities, stairs that are not located in public use areas shall not be required to comply with 504.

2. In alterations, stairs between levels that are connected by an accessible route shall not be required to comply with 504, except that handrails complying with 505 shall be provided when the stairs are altered.

3. In assembly areas, aisle stairs shall not be required to comply with 504.

4. Stairs that connect play components shall not be required to comply with 504.

Advisory 210.1 General. Although these requirements do not mandate handrails on stairs that are not part of a means of egress, State or local building codes may require handrails or guards.

211.1 General.

Where drinking fountains are provided on an exterior site, on a floor, or within a secured area they shall be provided in accordance with 211. [S.H. 4.1.3(10)(a)], [S.H. 4.1.3(10)(b)]

EXCEPTION: In detention or correctional facilities, drinking fountains only serving holding or housing cells not required to comply with 232 shall not be required to comply with 211.

211.2 Minimum Number.

No fewer than two drinking fountains shall be provided. One drinking fountain shall comply with 602.1 through 602.6 and one drinking fountain shall comply with 602.7. [S.H. 4.1.3(10)(a)]

EXCEPTION: Where a single drinking fountain complies with 602.1 through 602.6 and 602.7, it shall be permitted to be substituted for two separate drinking fountains.

211.3 More Than Minimum Number.

Where more than the minimum number of drinking fountains specified in 211.2 are provided, 50 percent of the total number of drinking fountains provided shall comply with 602.1 through 602.6, and 50 percent of the total number of drinking fountains provided shall comply with 602.7. [S.H. 4.1.3(10)(b)]

EXCEPTION: Where 50 percent of the drinking fountains yields a fraction, 50 percent shall be permitted to be rounded up or down provided that the total number of drinking fountains complying with 211 equals 100 percent of drinking fountains.

212.1 General.

Where provided, kitchens, kitchenettes, and sinks shall comply with 212.

212.2 Kitchens and Kitchenettes.

Kitchens and kitchenettes shall comply with 804.

212.3 Sinks.

Where sinks are provided, at least 5 percent, but no fewer than one, of each type provided in each accessible room or space shall comply with 606. [S.H. 9.2.2(7)]

EXCEPTION: Mop or service sinks shall not be required to comply with 212.3.

213.1 General.

Where toilet facilities and bathing facilities are provided, they shall comply with 213. Where toilet facilities and bathing facilities are provided in facilities permitted by 206.2.3 Exceptions 1 and 2 not to connect stories by an accessible route, toilet facilities and bathing facilities shall be provided on a story connected by an accessible route to an accessible entrance.

213.2 Toilet Rooms and Bathing Rooms.

Where toilet rooms are provided, each toilet room shall comply with 603. Where bathing rooms are provided, each bathing room shall comply with 603.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. In alterations where it is technically infeasible to comply with 603, altering existing toilet or bathing rooms shall not be required where a single unisex toilet room or bathing room complying with 213.2.1 is provided and located in the same area and on the same floor as existing inaccessible toilet or bathing rooms.

2. Where exceptions for alterations to qualified historic buildings or facilities are permitted by 202.5, no fewer than one toilet room for each sex complying with 603 or one unisex toilet room complying with 213.2.1 shall be provided.

3. Where multiple single user portable toilet or bathing units are clustered at a single location, no more than 5 percent of the toilet units and bathing units at each cluster shall be required to comply with 603. Portable toilet units and bathing units complying with 603 shall be identified by the International Symbol of Accessibility complying with 703.7.2.1.

4. Where multiple single user toilet rooms are clustered at a single location, no more than 50 percent of the single user toilet rooms for each use at each cluster shall be required to comply with 603.

Advisory 213.2 Toilet Rooms and Bathing Rooms. These requirements allow the use of unisex (or single-user) toilet rooms in alterations when technical infeasibility can be demonstrated. Unisex toilet rooms benefit people who use opposite sex personal care assistants. For this reason, it is advantageous to install unisex toilet rooms in addition to accessible single-sex toilet rooms in new facilities.

Advisory 213.2 Toilet Rooms and Bathing Rooms Exceptions 3 and 4. A “cluster” is a group of toilet rooms proximate to one another. Generally, toilet rooms in a cluster are within sight of, or adjacent to, one another.

213.2.1 Unisex (Single-Use or Family) Toilet and Unisex Bathing Rooms.

Unisex toilet rooms shall contain not more than one lavatory, and two water closets without urinals or one water closet and one urinal. Unisex bathing rooms shall contain one shower or one shower and one bathtub, one lavatory, and one water closet. Doors to unisex toilet rooms and unisex bathing rooms shall have privacy latches.

213.3 Plumbing Fixtures and Accessories.

Plumbing fixtures and accessories provided in a toilet room or bathing room required to comply with 213.2 shall comply with 213.3.

213.3.1 Toilet Compartments.

Where toilet compartments are provided, at least one toilet compartment shall comply with 604.8.1. In addition to the compartment required to comply with 604.8.1, at least one compartment shall comply with 604.8.2 where six or more toilet compartments are provided, or where the combination of urinals and water closets totals six or more fixtures. [S.H. 4.1.6(3)(e)(ii)], [S.H. 4.22.4]

Advisory 213.3.1 Toilet Compartments. A toilet compartment is a partitioned space that is located within a toilet room, and that normally contains no more than one water closet. A toilet compartment may also contain a lavatory. A lavatory is a sink provided for hand washing. Full-height partitions and door assemblies can comprise toilet compartments where the minimum required spaces are provided within the compartment.

213.3.2 Water Closets.

Where water closets are provided, at least one shall comply with 604.

213.3.3 Urinals.

Where more than one urinal is provided, at least one shall comply with 605.

213.3.4 Lavatories.

Where lavatories are provided, at least one shall comply with 606 and shall not be located in a toilet compartment.

213.3.5 Mirrors.

Where mirrors are provided, at least one shall comply with 603.3.

213.3.6 Bathing Facilities.

Where bathtubs or showers are provided, at least one bathtub complying with 607 or at least one shower complying with 608 shall be provided.

213.3.7 Coat Hooks and Shelves.

Where coat hooks or shelves are provided in toilet rooms without toilet compartments, at least one of each type shall comply with 603.4. Where coat hooks or shelves are provided in toilet compartments, at least one of each type complying with 604.8.3 shall be provided in toilet compartments required to comply with 213.3.1. Where coat hooks or shelves are provided in bathing facilities, at least one of each type complying with 603.4 shall serve fixtures required to comply with 213.3.6.

214.1 General.

Where provided, washing machines and clothes dryers shall comply with 214.

214.2 Washing Machines.

Where three or fewer washing machines are provided, at least one shall comply with 611. Where more than three washing machines are provided, at least two shall comply with 611.

214.3 Clothes Dryers.

Where three or fewer clothes dryers are provided, at least one shall comply with 611. Where more than three clothes dryers are provided, at least two shall comply with 611.

215.1 General.

Where fire alarm systems provide audible alarm coverage, alarms shall comply with 215.

EXCEPTION: In existing facilities, visible alarms shall not be required except where an existing fire alarm system is upgraded or replaced, or a new fire alarm system is installed.

Advisory 215.1 General. Unlike audible alarms, visible alarms must be located within the space they serve so that the signal is visible. Facility alarm systems (other than fire alarm systems) such as those used for tornado warnings and other emergencies are not required to comply with the technical criteria for alarms in Section 702. Every effort should be made to ensure that such alarms can be differentiated in their signal from fire alarms systems and that people who need to be notified of emergencies are adequately safeguarded. Consult local fire departments and prepare evacuation plans taking into consideration the needs of every building occupant, including people with disabilities.

215.2 Public and Common Use Areas.

Alarms in public use areas and common use areas shall comply with 702.

215.3 Employee Work Areas.

Where employee work areas have audible alarm coverage, the wiring system shall be designed so that visible alarms complying with 702 can be integrated into the alarm system.

215.4 Transient Lodging.

Guest rooms required to comply with 224.4 shall provide alarms complying with 702.

215.5 Residential Facilities.

Where provided in residential dwelling units required to comply with 809.5, alarms shall comply with 702.

216.1 General.

Signs shall be provided in accordance with 216 and shall comply with 703.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Building directories, menus, seat and row designations in assembly areas, occupant names, building addresses, and company names and logos shall not be required to comply with 216.

2. In parking facilities, signs shall not be required to comply with 216.2, 216.3, and 216.6 through 216.12.

3. Temporary, 7 days or less, signs shall not be required to comply with 216.

4. In detention and correctional facilities, signs not located in public use areas shall not be required to comply with 216.

216.2 Designations.

Interior and exterior signs identifying permanent rooms and spaces shall comply with 703.1, 703.2, and 703.5. Where pictograms are provided as designations of permanent interior rooms and spaces, the pictograms shall comply with 703.6 and shall have text descriptors complying with 703.2 and 703.5.

EXCEPTION: Exterior signs that are not located at the door to the space they serve shall not be required to comply with 703.2.

Advisory 216.2 Designations. Section 216.2 applies to signs that provide designations, labels, or names for interior rooms or spaces where the sign is not likely to change over time. Examples include interior signs labeling restrooms, room and floor numbers or letters, and room names. Tactile text descriptors are required for pictograms that are provided to label or identify a permanent room or space. Pictograms that provide information about a room or space, such as “no smoking,” occupant logos, and the International Symbol of Accessibility, are not required to have text descriptors.

216.3 Directional and Informational Signs.

Signs that provide direction to or information about interior spaces and facilities of the site shall comply with 703.5.

Advisory 216.3 Directional and Informational Signs. Information about interior spaces and facilities includes rules of conduct, occupant load, and similar signs. Signs providing direction to rooms or spaces include those that identify egress routes.

216.4 Means of Egress.

Signs for means of egress shall comply with 216.4.

216.4.1 Exit Doors.

Doors at exit passageways, exit discharge, and exit stairways shall be identified by tactile signs complying with 703.1, 703.2, and 703.5.

Advisory 216.4.1 Exit Doors. An exit passageway is a horizontal exit component that is separated from the interior spaces of the building by fire-resistance-rated construction and that leads to the exit discharge or public way. The exit discharge is that portion of an egress system between the termination of an exit and a public way.

216.4.2 Areas of Refuge.

Signs required by section 1003.2.13.5.4 of the International Building Code (2000 edition) or section 1007.6.4 of the International Building Code (2003 edition) (incorporated by reference, see “Referenced Standards” in Chapter 1) to provide instructions in areas of refuge shall comply with 703.5.

216.4.3 Directional Signs.

Signs required by section 1003.2.13.6 of the International Building Code (2000 edition) or section 1007.7 of the International Building Code (2003 edition) (incorporated by reference, see “Referenced Standards” in Chapter 1) to provide directions to accessible means of egress shall comply with 703.5.

216.5 Parking.

Parking spaces complying with 502 shall be identified by signs complying with 502.6.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Where a total of four or fewer parking spaces, including accessible parking spaces, are provided on a site, identification of accessible parking spaces shall not be required.

2. In residential facilities, where parking spaces are assigned to specific residential dwelling units, identification of accessible parking spaces shall not be required.

216.6 Entrances.

Where not all entrances comply with 404, entrances complying with 404 shall be identified by the International Symbol of Accessibility complying with 703.7.2.1. Directional signs complying with 703.5 that indicate the location of the nearest entrance complying with 404 shall be provided at entrances that do not comply with 404.

Advisory 216.6 Entrances. Where a directional sign is required, it should be located to minimize backtracking. In some cases, this could mean locating a sign at the beginning of a route, not just at the inaccessible entrances to a building.

216.7 Elevators.

Where existing elevators do not comply with 407, elevators complying with 407 shall be clearly identified with the International Symbol of Accessibility complying with 703.7.2.1.

216.8 Toilet Rooms and Bathing Rooms.

Where existing toilet rooms or bathing rooms do not comply with 603, directional signs indicating the location of the nearest toilet room or bathing room complying with 603 within the facility shall be provided. Signs shall comply with 703.5 and shall include the International Symbol of Accessibility complying with 703.7.2.1. Where existing toilet rooms or bathing rooms do not comply with 603, the toilet rooms or bathing rooms complying with 603 shall be identified by the International Symbol of Accessibility complying with 703.7.2.1. Where clustered single user toilet rooms or bathing facilities are permitted to use exceptions to 213.2, toilet rooms or bathing facilities complying with 603 shall be identified by the International Symbol of Accessibility complying with 703.7.2.1 unless all toilet rooms and bathing facilities comply with 603. [S.H. 4.1.2(7)(d)], [S.H. 4.1.6(3)(e)(iii)]

216.9 TTYs.

Identification and directional signs for public TTYs shall be provided in accordance with 216.9.

216.9.1 Identification Signs.

Public TTYs shall be identified by the International Symbol of TTY complying with 703.7.2.2.

216.9.2 Directional Signs.

Directional signs indicating the location of the nearest public TTY shall be provided at all banks of public pay telephones not containing a public TTY. In addition, where signs provide direction to public pay telephones, they shall also provide direction to public TTYs. Directional signs shall comply with 703.5 and shall include the International Symbol of TTY complying with 703.7.2.2.

216.10 Assistive Listening Systems.

Each assembly area required by 219 to provide assistive listening systems shall provide signs informing patrons of the availability of the assistive listening system. Assistive listening signs shall comply with 703.5 and shall include the International Symbol of Access for Hearing Loss complying with 703.7.2.4.

EXCEPTION: Where ticket offices or windows are provided, signs shall not be required at each assembly area provided that signs are displayed at each ticket office or window informing patrons of the availability of assistive listening systems.

216.11 Check-Out Aisles.

Where more than one check-out aisle is provided, check-out aisles complying with 904.3 shall be identified by the International Symbol of Accessibility complying with 703.7.2.1. Where check-out aisles are identified by numbers, letters, or functions, signs identifying check-out aisles complying with 904.3 shall be located in the same location as the check-out aisle identification.

EXCEPTION: Where all check-out aisles serving a single function comply with 904.3, signs complying with 703.7.2.1 shall not be required.

216.12 Amusement Rides.

Signs identifying the type of access provided on amusement rides shall be provided at entries to queues and waiting lines. In addition, where accessible unload areas also serve as accessible load areas, signs indicating the location of the accessible load and unload areas shall be provided at entries to queues and waiting lines.

Advisory 216.12 Amusement Rides. Amusement rides designed primarily for children, amusement rides that are controlled or operated by the rider, and amusement rides without seats, are not required to provide wheelchair spaces, transfer seats, or transfer systems, and need not meet the sign requirements in 216.12. The load and unload areas of these rides must, however, be on an accessible route and must provide turning space.

217.1 General.

Where coin-operated public pay telephones, coinless public pay telephones, public closed-circuit telephones, public courtesy phones, or other types of public telephones are provided, public telephones shall be provided in accordance with 217 for each type of public telephone provided. For purposes of this section, a bank of telephones shall be considered to be two or more adjacent telephones.

Advisory 217.1 General. These requirements apply to all types of public telephones including courtesy phones at airports and rail stations that provide a free direct connection to hotels, transportation services, and tourist attractions.

217.2 Wheelchair Accessible Telephones.

Where public telephones are provided, wheelchair accessible telephones complying with 704.2 shall be provided in accordance with Table 217.2.

EXCEPTION: Drive-up only public telephones shall not be required to comply with 217.2.

Table 217.2 Wheelchair Accessible Telephones
Number of Telephones Provided on a Floor, Level, or Exterior Site Minimum Number of Required Wheelchair Accessible Telephones
1 or more single units 1 per floor, level, and exterior site
1 bank 1 per floor, level, and exterior site
2 or more banks 1 per bank
217.3 Volume Controls.

All public telephones shall have volume controls complying with 704.3. [S.H. 4.1.3(17)(b)]

217.4 TTYs.

TTYs complying with 704.4 shall be provided in accordance with 217.4.

Advisory 217.4 TTYs. Separate requirements are provided based on the number of public pay telephones provided at a bank of telephones, within a floor, a building, or on a site. In some instances one TTY can be used to satisfy more than one of these requirements. For example, a TTY required for a bank can satisfy the requirements for a building. However, the requirement for at least one TTY on an exterior site cannot be met by installing a TTY in a bank inside a building. Consideration should be given to phone systems that can accommodate both digital and analog transmissions for compatibility with digital and analog TTYs.

217.4.1 Bank Requirement.

Where four or more public pay telephones are provided at a bank of telephones, at least one public TTY complying with 704.4 shall be provided at that bank.

EXCEPTION: TTYs shall not be required at banks of telephones located within 200 feet (61 m) of, and on the same floor as, a bank containing a public TTY.

217.4.2 Floor Requirement.

TTYs in public buildings shall be provided in accordance with 217.4.2.1. TTYs in private buildings shall be provided in accordance with 217.4.2.2.

217.4.2.1 Public Buildings.

Where at least one public pay telephone is provided on a floor of a public building, at least one public TTY shall be provided on that floor. [S.H. 4.1.3(17)(c)(i)], [S.H. 4.1.3(17)(d)]

217.4.2.2 Private Buildings.

Where four or more public pay telephones are provided on a floor of a private building, at least one public TTY shall be provided on that floor. [S.H. 4.1.3(17)(c)(i)], [S.H. 4.1.3(17)(d)]

217.4.3 Building Requirement.

TTYs in public buildings shall be provided in accordance with 217.4.3.1. TTYs in private buildings shall be provided in accordance with 217.4.3.2.

217.4.3.1 Public Buildings.

Where at least one public pay telephone is provided in a public building, at least one public TTY shall be provided in the building. Where at least one public pay telephone is provided in a public use area of a public building, at least one public TTY shall be provided in the public building in a public use area. [S.H. 4.1.3(17)(c)(i)], [S.H. 4.1.3(17)(d)]

217.4.3.2 Private Buildings.

Where four or more public pay telephones are provided in a private building, at least one public TTY shall be provided in the building. [S.H. 4.1.3(17)(c)(i)], [S.H. 4.1.3(17)(d)]

217.4.4 Exterior Site Requirement.

Where four or more public pay telephones are provided on an exterior site, at least one public TTY shall be provided on the site. [S.H. 4.1.3(17)(c)(i)]

217.4.5 Rest Stops, Emergency Roadside Stops, and Service Plazas.

Where at least one public pay telephone is provided at a public rest stop, emergency roadside stop, or service plaza, at least one public TTY shall be provided.

217.4.6 Hospitals.

Where at least one public pay telephone is provided serving a hospital emergency room, hospital recovery room, or hospital waiting room, at least one public TTY shall be provided at each location.

217.4.7 Transportation Facilities.

In transportation facilities, in addition to the requirements of 217.4.1 through 217.4.4, where at least one public pay telephone serves a particular entrance to a bus or rail facility, at least one public TTY shall be provided to serve that entrance. In airports, in addition to the requirements of 217.4.1 through 217.4.4, where four or more public pay telephones are located in a terminal outside the security areas, a concourse within the security areas, or a baggage claim area in a terminal, at least one public TTY shall be provided in each location. [S.H. 10.3.1(12)(b)]

217.4.8 Detention and Correctional Facilities.

In detention and correctional facilities, where at least one pay telephone is provided in a secured area used only by detainees or inmates and security personnel, at least one TTY shall be provided in at least one secured area.

217.5 Shelves for Portable TTYs.

Where a bank of telephones in the interior of a building consists of three or more public pay telephones, at least one public pay telephone at the bank shall be provided with a shelf and an electrical outlet in accordance with 704.5.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Secured areas of detention and correctional facilities where shelves and outlets are prohibited for purposes of security or safety shall not be required to comply with 217.5.

2. The shelf and electrical outlet shall not be required at a bank of telephones with a TTY.

218.1 General.

Transportation facilities shall comply with 218.

218.2 New and Altered Fixed Guideway Stations.

New and altered stations in rapid rail, light rail, commuter rail, intercity rail, high speed rail, and other fixed guideway systems shall comply with 810.5 through 810.10.

218.3 Key Stations and Existing Intercity Rail Stations.

Key stations and existing intercity rail stations shall comply with 810.5 through 810.10.

218.4 Bus Shelters.

Where provided, bus shelters shall comply with 810.3.

218.5 Other Transportation Facilities.

In other transportation facilities, public address systems shall comply with 810.7 and clocks shall comply with 810.8.

219.1 General.

Assistive listening systems shall be provided in accordance with 219 and shall comply with 706.

219.2 Required Systems.

In each assembly area where audible communication is integral to the use of the space, an assistive listening system shall be provided.

EXCEPTION: Other than in courtrooms, assistive listening systems shall not be required where audio amplification is not provided.

219.3 Receivers.

Receivers complying with 706.2 shall be provided for assistive listening systems in each assembly area in accordance with Table 219.3. [S.H. 4.1.3(19)(b)] Twenty-five percent minimum of receivers provided, but no fewer than two, shall be hearing-aid compatible in accordance with 706.3.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Where a building contains more than one assembly area and the assembly areas required to provide assistive listening systems are under one management, the total number of required receivers shall be permitted to be calculated according to the total number of seats in the assembly areas in the building provided that all receivers are usable with all systems.

2. Where all seats in an assembly area are served by an induction loop assistive listening system, the minimum number of receivers required by Table 219.3 to be hearing-aid compatible shall not be required to be provided.

Table 219.3 Receivers for Assistive Listening Systems
Capacity of Seating in Assembly Area Minimum Number of Required Receivers Minimum Number of Required Receivers Required to be Hearing-aid Compatible
50 or less 2 2
51 to 200 2, plus 1 per 25 seats over 50 seats1 2
201 to 500 2, plus 1 per 25 seats over 50 seats1 1 per 4 receivers1
501 to 1000 20, plus 1 per 33 seats over 500 seats1 1 per 4 receivers1
1001 to 2000 35, plus 1 per 50 seats over 1000 seats1 1 per 4 receivers1
2001 and over 55 plus 1 per 100 seats over 2000 seats1 1 per 4 receivers1

1. Or fraction thereof.

220.1 General.

Where automatic teller machines or self-service fare vending, collection, or adjustment machines are provided, at least one of each type provided at each location shall comply with 707. Where bins are provided for envelopes, waste paper, or other purposes, at least one of each type shall comply with 811. [S.H. 4.1.3(20)], [S.H. 10.3.1(7)]

Advisory 220.1 General. If a bank provides both interior and exterior ATMs, each such installation is considered a separate location. Accessible ATMs, including those with speech and those that are within reach of people who use wheelchairs, must provide all the functions provided to customers at that location at all times. For example, it is unacceptable for the accessible ATM only to provide cash withdrawals while inaccessible ATMs also sell theater tickets.

221.1 General.

Assembly areas shall provide wheelchair spaces, companion seats, and designated aisle seats complying with 221 and 802. In addition, lawn seating shall comply with 221.5.

ETA Editor’s Note:

For, 35.151(g) New Construction and Alterations; Assembly Areas and 36.406(f) Standards for New Construction and Alterations; Assembly Areas see Access Board’s Note to Reader after Section 221.2.3.2.

221.2 Wheelchair Spaces.

Wheelchair spaces complying with 221.2 shall be provided in assembly areas with fixed seating.

221.2.1 Number and Location.

Wheelchair spaces shall be provided complying with 221.2.1.

221.2.1.1 General Seating.

Wheelchair spaces complying with 802.1 shall be provided in accordance with Table 221.2.1.1. [S.H. 4.1.3(19)(a)]

Table 221.2.1.1 Number of Wheelchair Spaces in Assembly Areas

Number of Seats Minimum Number of Required Wheelchair Spaces
4 to 25 1
26 to 50 2
51 to 150 4
151 to 300 5
301 to 500 6
501 to 5000 6, plus 1 for each 150, or fraction thereof, between 501 through 5000
5001 and over 36, plus 1 for each 200, or fraction thereof, over 5000

221.2.1.2 Luxury Boxes, Club Boxes, and Suites in Arenas, Stadiums, and Grandstands.

In each luxury box, club box, and suite within arenas, stadiums, and grandstands, wheelchair spaces complying with 802.1 shall be provided in accordance with Table 221.2.1.1.

Advisory 221.2.1.2 Luxury Boxes, Club Boxes, and Suites in Arenas, Stadiums, and Grandstands. The number of wheelchair spaces required in luxury boxes, club boxes, and suites within an arena, stadium, or grandstand is to be calculated box by box and suite.    

221.2.1.3 Other Boxes.

In boxes other than those required to comply with 221.2.1.2, the total number of wheelchair spaces required shall be determined in accordance with Table 221.2.1.1. Wheelchair spaces shall be located in not less than 20 percent of all boxes provided. Wheelchair spaces shall comply with 802.1.

Advisory 221.2.1.3 Other Boxes. The provision for seating in “other boxes” includes box seating provided in facilities such as performing arts auditoria where tiered boxes are designed for spatial and acoustical purposes. The number of wheelchair spaces required in boxes covered by 221.2.1.3 is calculated based on the total number of seats provided in these other boxes. The resulting number of wheelchair spaces must be located in no fewer than 20% of the boxes covered by this section. For example, a concert hall has 20 boxes, each of which contains 10 seats, totaling 200 seats. In this example, 5 wheelchair spaces would be required, and they must be placed in at least 4 of the boxes. Additionally, because the wheelchair spaces must also meet the dispersion requirements of 221.2.3, the boxes containing these wheelchair spaces cannot all be located in one area unless an exception to the dispersion requirements applies.

221.2.1.4 Team or Player Seating.

At least one wheelchair space complying with 802.1 shall be provided in team or player seating areas serving areas of sport activity.

EXCEPTION: Wheelchair spaces shall not be required in team or player seating areas serving bowling lanes not required to comply with 206.2.11.

221.2.2 Integration.

Wheelchair spaces shall be an integral part of the seating plan.

36.308 Seating in Assembly Areas.

A public accommodation shall ensure that wheelchair spaces and companion seats are provided in each specialty seating area that provides spectators with distinct services or amenities that generally are not available to other spectators. If it is not readily achievable for a public accommodation to place wheelchair spaces and companion seats in each such specialty seating area, it shall provide those services or amenities to individuals with disabilities and their companions at other designated accessible locations at no additional cost. The number of wheelchair spaces and companion seats provided in specialty seating areas shall be included in, rather than in addition to, wheelchair space requirements set forth in Table 221.2.1.1 in the 2010 Standards

Advisory 221.2.2 Integration. The requirement that wheelchair spaces be an “integral part of the seating plan” means that wheelchair spaces must be placed within the footprint of the seating area. Wheelchair spaces cannot be segregated from seating areas. For example, it would be unacceptable to place only the wheelchair spaces, or only the wheelchair spaces and their associated companion seats, outside the seating areas defined by risers in an assembly area.

221.2.3 Lines of Sight and Dispersion.

Wheelchair spaces shall provide lines of sight complying with 802.2 and shall comply with 221.2.3. In providing lines of sight, wheelchair spaces shall be dispersed. Wheelchair spaces shall provide spectators with choices of seating locations and viewing angles that are substantially equivalent to, or better than, the choices of seating locations and viewing angles available to all other spectators. When the number of wheelchair spaces required by 221.2.1 has been met, further dispersion shall not be required. [S.H. 4.33.3]

EXCEPTION: Wheelchair spaces in team or player seating areas serving areas of sport activity shall not be required to comply with 221.2.3.

Advisory 221.2.3 Lines of Sight and Dispersion. Consistent with the overall intent of the ADA, individuals who use wheelchairs must be provided equal access so that their experience is substantially equivalent to that of other members of the audience. Thus, while individuals who use wheelchairs need not be provided with the best seats in the house, neither may they be relegated to the worst.

221.2.3.1 Horizontal Dispersion.

Wheelchair spaces shall be dispersed horizontally. [S.H. 4.33.3]

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Horizontal dispersion shall not be required in assembly areas with 300 or fewer seats if the companion seats required by 221.3 and wheelchair spaces are located within the 2nd or 3rd quartile of the total row length. Intermediate aisles shall be included in determining the total row length. If the row length in the 2nd and 3rd quartile of a row is insufficient to accommodate the required number of companion seats and wheelchair spaces, the additional companion seats and wheelchair spaces shall be permitted to be located in the 1st and 4th quartile of the row. [S.H. 4.33.3]

2. In row seating, two wheelchair spaces shall be permitted to be located side-by-side.

Advisory 221.2.3.1 Horizontal Dispersion. Horizontal dispersion of wheelchair spaces is the placement of spaces in an assembly facility seating area from side-to-side or, in the case of an arena or stadium, around the field of play or performance area.

221.2.3.2 Vertical Dispersion.

Wheelchair spaces shall be dispersed vertically at varying distances from the screen, performance area, or playing field. In addition, wheelchair spaces shall be located in each balcony or mezzanine that is located on an accessible route. [S.H. 4.33.3]

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Vertical dispersion shall not be required in assembly areas with 300 or fewer seats if the wheelchair spaces provide viewing angles that are equivalent to, or better than, the average viewing angle provided in the facility. [S.H. 4.33.3]

2. In bleachers, wheelchair spaces shall not be required to be provided in rows other than rows at points of entry to bleacher seating.

Advisory 221.2.3.2 Vertical Dispersion. When wheelchair spaces are dispersed vertically in an assembly facility they are placed at different locations within the seating area from front-to-back so that the distance from the screen, stage, playing field, area of sports activity, or other focal point is varied among wheelchair spaces.

Advisory 221.2.3.2 Vertical Dispersion Exception 2. Points of entry to bleacher seating may include, but are not limited to, cross aisles, concourses, vomitories, and entrance ramps and stairs. Vertical, center, or side aisles adjoining bleacher seating that are stepped or tiered are not considered entry points. 

ETA Editor’s Note:

This Access Board Note was taken from 35.151(g) New Construction and Alterations; Assembly Areas and 36.406(f) Standards for New Construction and Alterations; Assembly Areas. 

Access Board’s Note to Reader:

The Department of Justice’s ADA standards also require the following:

Assembly areas. Assembly areas that are subject to this part [of the title III regulation or to this section of the title II regulation] shall comply with the provisions of the 2010 Standards applicable to assembly areas, including, but not limited to, sections 221 and 802. In addition, assembly areas shall ensure that —

(1) In stadiums, arenas, and grandstands, wheelchair spaces and companion seats are dispersed to all levels that include seating served by an accessible route;

(2) Assembly areas that are required to horizontally disperse wheelchair spaces and companion seats by section 221.2.3.1 of the 2010 Standards and have seating encircling, in whole or in part, a field of play or performance area shall disperse wheelchair spaces and companion seats around that field of play or performance area;

(3) Wheelchair spaces and companion seats are not located on (or obstructed by) temporary platforms or other movable structures, except that when an entire seating section is placed on temporary platforms or other movable structures in an area where fixed seating is not provided, in order to increase seating for an event, wheelchair spaces and companion seats may be placed in that section. When wheelchair spaces and companion seats are not required to accommodate persons eligible for those spaces and seats, individual, removable seats may be placed in those spaces and seats;

(4) Stadium-style movie theaters shall locate wheelchair spaces and companion seats on a riser or cross-aisle in the stadium section that satisfies at least one of the following criteria —

(i) It is located within the rear 60% of the seats provided in an auditorium; or

(ii) It is located within the area of an auditorium in which the vertical viewing angles (as measured to the top of the screen) are from the 40th to the 100th percentile of vertical viewing angles for all seats as ranked from the seats in the first row (1st percentile) to seats in the back row (100th percentile).

221.3 Companion Seats.

At least one companion seat complying with 802.3 shall be provided for each wheelchair space required by 221.2.1.

221.4 Designated Aisle Seats.

At least 5 percent of the total number of aisle seats provided shall comply with 802.4 and shall be the aisle seats located closest to accessible routes. [S.H. 4.1.3(19)(a)]

EXCEPTION: Team or player seating areas serving areas of sport activity shall not be required to comply with 221.4.

Advisory 221.4 Designated Aisle Seats. When selecting which aisle seats will meet the requirements of 802.4, those aisle seats which are closest to, not necessarily on, accessible routes must be selected first. For example, an assembly area has two aisles (A and B) serving seating areas with an accessible route connecting to the top and bottom of Aisle A only. The aisle seats chosen to meet 802.4 must be those at the top and bottom of Aisle A, working toward the middle. Only when all seats on Aisle A would not meet the five percent minimum would seats on Aisle B be designated.

221.5 Lawn Seating.

Lawn seating areas and exterior overflow seating areas, where fixed seats are not provided, shall connect to an accessible route.

222.1 General.

Where dressing rooms, fitting rooms, or locker rooms are provided, at least 5 percent, but no fewer than one, of each type of use in each cluster provided shall comply with 803.

EXCEPTION: In alterations, where it is technically infeasible to provide rooms in accordance with 222.1, one room for each sex on each level shall comply with 803. Where only unisex rooms are provided unisex rooms shall be permitted.

Advisory 222.1 General. A “cluster” is a group of rooms proximate to one another. Generally, rooms in a cluster are within sight of, or adjacent to, one another. Different styles of design provide users varying levels of privacy and convenience. Some designs include private changing facilities that are close to core areas of the facility, while other designs use space more economically and provide only group dressing facilities. Regardless of the type of facility, dressing, fitting, and locker rooms should provide people with disabilities rooms that are equally private and convenient to those provided others. For example, in a physician’s office, if people without disabilities must traverse the full length of the office suite in clothing other than their street clothes, it is acceptable for people with disabilities to be asked to do the same.

222.2 Coat Hooks and Shelves.

Where coat hooks or shelves are provided in dressing, fitting or locker rooms without individual compartments, at least one of each type shall comply with 803.5. Where coat hooks or shelves are provided in individual compartments at least one of each type complying with 803.5 shall be provided in individual compartments in dressing, fitting, or locker rooms required to comply with 222.1.

223.1 General.

In licensed medical care facilities and licensed long-term care facilities where the period of stay exceeds twenty-four hours, patient or resident sleeping rooms shall be provided in accordance with 223.

EXCEPTION: Toilet rooms that are part of critical or intensive care patient sleeping rooms shall not be required to comply with 603.

Advisory 223.1 General. Because medical facilities frequently reconfigure spaces to reflect changes in medical specialties, Section 223.1 does not include a provision for dispersion of accessible patient or resident sleeping rooms. The lack of a design requirement does not mean that covered entities are not required to provide services to people with disabilities where accessible rooms are not dispersed in specialty areas. Locate accessible rooms near core areas that are less likely to change over time. While dispersion is not required, the flexibility it provides can be a critical factor in ensuring cost effective compliance with applicable civil rights laws, including titles II and III of the ADA and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended.  Additionally, all types of features and amenities should be dispersed among accessible sleeping rooms to ensure equal access to and a variety of choices for all patients and residents.

223.1.1 Alterations.

Where sleeping rooms are altered or added, the requirements of 223 shall apply only to the sleeping rooms being altered or added until the number of sleeping rooms complies with the minimum number required for new construction.

Advisory 223.1.1 Alterations. In alterations and additions, the minimum required number is based on the total number of sleeping rooms altered or added instead of on the total number of sleeping rooms provided in a facility. As a facility is altered over time, every effort should be made to disperse accessible sleeping rooms among patient care areas such as pediatrics, cardiac care, maternity, and other units. In this way, people with disabilities can have access to the full-range of services provided by a medical care facility.

223.2 Hospitals, Rehabilitation Facilities, Psychiatric Facilities and Detoxification Facilities.

Hospitals, rehabilitation facilities, psychiatric facilities and detoxification facilities shall comply with 223.2.

223.2.1 Facilities Not Specializing in Treating Conditions That Affect Mobility.

In facilities not specializing in treating conditions that affect mobility, at least 10 percent, but no fewer than one, of the patient sleeping rooms shall provide mobility features complying with 805.

ETA Editor’s Note:

This Access Board Note was taken from 35.151(h) New Construction and Alterations; Medical Care Facilities and 36.406(g) Standards for New Construction and Alterations; Medical Care Facilities.

Access Board’s Note to Reader:

The Department of Justice’s ADA standards also require the following:

Medical care facilities. Medical care facilities that are subject to this part [of the title III regulation or to this section of the title II regulation] shall comply with the provisions of the 2010 Standards applicable to medical care facilities, including, but not limited to, sections 223 and 805.  In addition, medical care facilities that do not specialize in the treatment of conditions that affect mobility shall disperse the accessible patient bedrooms required by section 223.2.1 of the 2010 Standards in a manner that is proportionate by type of medical specialty. 

223.2.2 Facilities Specializing in Treating Conditions That Affect Mobility.

In facilities specializing in treating conditions that affect mobility, 100 percent of the patient sleeping rooms shall provide mobility features complying with 805.

Advisory 223.2.2 Facilities Specializing in Treating Conditions That Affect Mobility. Conditions that affect mobility include conditions requiring the use or assistance of a brace, cane, crutch, prosthetic device, wheelchair, or powered mobility aid; arthritic, neurological, or orthopedic conditions that severely limit one's ability to walk; respiratory diseases and other conditions which may require the use of portable oxygen; and cardiac conditions that impose significant functional limitations. Facilities that may provide treatment for, but that do not specialize in treatment of such conditions, such as general rehabilitation hospitals, are not subject to this requirement but are subject to Section 223.2.1.

223.3 Long-Term Care Facilities.

In licensed long-term care facilities, at least 50 percent, but no fewer than one, of each type of resident sleeping room shall provide mobility features complying with 805.

224.1 General.

Transient lodging facilities shall provide guest rooms in accordance with 224.

ETA Editor’s Note:

For, 36.406(c) Standards for New Construction and Alterations; Places of Lodging, 35.151(f) New Construction and Alterations; Housing at a Place of Education, and 36.406(e) Standards for New Construction and Alterations; Housing at a Place of Education see Access Board’s Note to Reader after Section 224.5

Advisory 224.1 General. Certain facilities used for transient lodging, including time shares, dormitories, and town homes may be covered by both these requirements and the Fair Housing Amendments Act. The Fair Housing Amendments Act requires that certain residential structures having four or more multi-family dwelling units, regardless of whether they are privately owned or federally assisted, include certain features of accessible and adaptable design according to guidelines established by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). This law and the appropriate regulations should be consulted before proceeding with the design and construction of residential housing.

224.1.1 Alterations.

Where guest rooms are altered or added, the requirements of 224 shall apply only to the guest rooms being altered or added until the number of guest rooms complies with the minimum number required for new construction.

Advisory 224.1.1 Alterations. In alterations and additions, the minimum required number of accessible guest rooms is based on the total number of guest rooms altered or added instead of the total number of guest rooms provided in a facility. Typically, each alteration of a facility is limited to a particular portion of the facility. When accessible guest rooms are added as a result of subsequent alterations, compliance with 224.5 (Dispersion) is more likely to be achieved if all of the accessible guest rooms are not provided in the same area of the facility.

224.1.2 Guest Room Doors and Doorways.

Entrances, doors, and doorways providing user passage into and within guest rooms that are not required to provide mobility features complying with 806.2 shall comply with 404.2.3.

EXCEPTION: Shower and sauna doors in guest rooms that are not required to provide mobility features complying with 806.2 shall not be required to comply with 404.2.3.

Advisory 224.1.2 Guest Room Doors and Doorways. Because of the social interaction that often occurs in lodging facilities, an accessible clear opening width is required for doors and doorways to and within all guest rooms, including those not required to be accessible. This applies to all doors, including bathroom doors, that allow full user passage. Other requirements for doors and doorways in Section 404 do not apply to guest rooms not required to provide mobility features.

224.2 Guest Rooms with Mobility Features.

In transient lodging facilities, guest rooms with mobility features complying with 806.2 shall be provided in accordance with Table 224.2.

Table 224.2 Guest Rooms with Mobility Features
Total Number of Guest Rooms Provided Minimum Number of Required Rooms Without Roll-in Showers Minimum Number of Required Rooms With Roll-in Showers Total Number of Required Rooms
1 to 25 1 0 1
26 to 50 2 0 2
51 to 75 3 1 4
76 to 100 4 1 5
101 to 150 5 2 7
151 to 200 6 2 8
201 to 300 7 3 10
301 to 400 8 4 12
401 to 500 9 4 13
501 to 1000 2 percent of total 1 percent of total 3 percent of total
1001 and over 20, plus 1 for each 100, or fraction thereof, over 1000 10, plus 1 for each 100, or fraction thereof, over 1000 30, plus 2 for each 100, or fraction thereof, over 1000
224.3 Beds.

In guest rooms having more than 25 beds, 5 percent minimum of the beds shall have clear floor space complying with 806.2.3.

224.4 Guest Rooms with Communication Features.

In transient lodging facilities, guest rooms with communication features complying with 806.3 shall be provided in accordance with Table 224.4. [S.H. 9.1.3]

Table 224.4 Guest Rooms with Communication Features
Total Number of Guest Rooms Provided Minimum Number of Required Guest Rooms With Communication Features
2 to 25 2
26 to 50 4
51 to 75 7
76 to 100 9
101 to 150 12
151 to 200 14
201 to 300 17
301 to 400 20
401 to 500 22
501 to 1000 5 percent of total
1001 and over 50, plus 3 for each 100 over 1000
224.5 Dispersion.

Guest rooms required to provide mobility features complying with 806.2 and guest rooms required to provide communication features complying with 806.3 shall be dispersed among the various classes of guest rooms, and shall provide choices of types of guest rooms, number of beds, and other amenities comparable to the choices provided to other guests. Where the minimum number of guest rooms required to comply with 806 is not sufficient to allow for complete dispersion, guest rooms shall be dispersed in the following priority: guest room type, number of beds, and amenities. At least one guest room required to provide mobility features complying with 806.2 shall also provide communication features complying with 806.3. Not more than 10 percent of guest rooms required to provide mobility features complying with 806.2 shall be used to satisfy the minimum number of guest rooms required to provide communication features complying with 806.3. [S.H. 9.1.4]

Advisory 224.5 Dispersion. Factors to be considered in providing an equivalent range of options may include, but are not limited to, room size, bed size, cost, view, bathroom fixtures such as hot tubs and spas, smoking and nonsmoking, and the number of rooms provided.

ETA Editor’s Note:

This Access Board note was taken from 36.406(c) Standards for New Construction and Alterations; Places of Lodging. 

Access Board’s Note to Reader:

The Department of Justice’s ADA standards also require the following:

Places of lodging. Places of lodging subject to this part [of the title III regulation] shall comply with the provisions of the 2010 Standards applicable to transient lodging, including, but not limited to, the requirements for transient lodging guest rooms in sections 224 and 806.

(1) Guest rooms. Guest rooms with mobility features in places of lodging subject to the transient lodging requirements of 2010 Standards shall be provided as follows--

(i) Facilities that are subject to the same permit application on a common site that each have 50 or fewer guest rooms may be combined for the purposes of determining the required number of accessible rooms and type of accessible bathing facility in accordance with Table 224.2 to section 224.2 of the 2010 Standards.

(ii) Facilities with more than 50 guest rooms shall be treated separately for the purposes of determining the required number of accessible rooms and type of accessible bathing facility in accordance with Table 224.2 to section 224.2 of the 2010 Standards.

(2) Exception. Alterations to guest rooms in places of lodging where the guest rooms are not owned or substantially controlled by the entity that owns, leases, or operates the overall facility and the physical features of the guest room interiors are controlled by their individual owners are not required to comply with § 36.402 or the alterations requirements in section 224.1.1 of the 2010 Standards.

(3) Facilities with residential units and transient lodging units. Residential dwelling units that are designed and constructed for residential use exclusively are not subject to the transient lodging standards.

The Department of Justice's title II and title III regulations include requirements for social service center establishments which are noted in section 233 (Residential Facilities). 

ETA Editor’s Note:

This Access Board note was taken from 35.151(f) New Construction and Alterations; Housing at a Place of Education and 36.406(e) Standards for New Construction and Alterations; Housing at a Place of Education.

Access Board’s Note to Reader:

The Department of Justice’s ADA standards also require the following:

Housing at a place of education. Housing at a place of education that is subject to this part [of the title III regulation or to this section of the title II regulation] shall comply with the provisions of the 2010 Standards applicable to transient lodging, including, but not limited to, the requirements for transient lodging guest rooms in sections 224 and 806, subject to the following exceptions. For the purposes of the application of this section, the term "sleeping room" is intended to be used interchangeably with the term "guest room" as it is used in the transient lodging standards.

(1) Kitchens within housing units containing accessible sleeping rooms with mobility features (including suites and clustered sleeping rooms) or on floors containing accessible sleeping rooms with mobility features shall provide turning spaces that comply with section 809.2.2 of the 2010 Standards and kitchen work surfaces that comply with section 804.3 of the 2010 Standards.

(2) Multi-bedroom housing units containing accessible sleeping rooms with mobility features shall have an accessible route throughout the unit in accordance with section 809.2 of the 2010 Standards.

(3) Apartments or townhouse facilities that are provided by or on behalf of a place of education, which are leased on a year-round basis exclusively to graduate students or faculty and do not contain any public use or common use areas available for educational programming, are not subject to the transient lodging standards and shall comply with the requirements for residential facilities in sections 233 and 809 of the 2010 Standards.

The Department of Justice's title II and title III regulations include requirements for social service center establishments which are noted in section 233 (Residential Facilities).  

225.1 General.

Storage facilities shall comply with 225.

225.2 Storage.

Where storage is provided in accessible spaces, at least one of each type shall comply with 811.

Advisory 225.2 Storage. Types of storage include, but are not limited to, closets, cabinets, shelves, clothes rods, hooks, and drawers. Where provided, at least one of each type of storage must be within the reach ranges specified in 308; however, it is permissible to install additional storage outside the reach ranges.

225.2.1 Lockers.

Where lockers are provided, at least 5 percent, but no fewer than one of each type, shall comply with 811. [S.H. 4.1.3(12)(a)]

Advisory 225.2.1 Lockers. Different types of lockers may include full-size and half-size lockers, as well as those specifically designed for storage of various sports equipment.

225.2.2 Self-Service Shelving.

Self-service shelves shall be located on an accessible route complying with 402. Self-service shelving shall not be required to comply with 308.

Advisory 225.2.2 Self-Service Shelving. Self-service shelves include, but are not limited to, library, store, or post office shelves.

225.3 Self-Service Storage Facilities.

Self-service storage facilities shall provide individual self-service storage spaces complying with these requirements in accordance with Table 225.3.

Table 225.3 Self-Service Storage Facilities
Total Spaces in Facility Minimum Number of Spaces Required to be Accessible
1 to 200 5 percent, but no fewer than 1
201 and over 10, plus 2 percent of total number of units over 200

Advisory 225.3 Self-Service Storage Facilities. Although there are no technical requirements that are unique to self-service storage facilities, elements and spaces provided in facilities containing self-service storage spaces required to comply with these requirements must comply with this document where applicable. For example: the number of storage spaces required to comply with these requirements must provide Accessible Routes complying with Section 206; Accessible Means of Egress complying with Section 207; Parking Spaces complying with Section 208; and, where provided, other public use or common use elements and facilities such as toilet rooms, drinking fountains, and telephones must comply with the applicable requirements of this document.

225.3.1 Dispersion.

Individual self-service storage spaces shall be dispersed throughout the various classes of spaces provided. Where more classes of spaces are provided than the number required to be accessible, the number of spaces shall not be required to exceed that required by Table 225.3. Self-service storage spaces complying with Table 225.3 shall not be required to be dispersed among buildings in a multi-building facility.

226.1 General.

Where dining surfaces are provided for the consumption of food or drink, at least 5 percent of the seating spaces and standing spaces at the dining surfaces shall comply with 902. In addition, where work surfaces are provided for use by other than employees, at least 5 percent shall comply with 902.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Sales counters and service counters shall not be required to comply with 902.

2. Check writing surfaces provided at check-out aisles not required to comply with 904.3 shall not be required to comply with 902.

Advisory 226.1 General. In facilities covered by the ADA, this requirement does not apply to work surfaces used only by employees. However, the ADA and, where applicable, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended, provide that employees are entitled to “reasonable accommodations.” With respect to work surfaces, this means that employers may need to procure or adjust work stations such as desks, laboratory and work benches, fume hoods, reception counters, teller windows, study carrels, commercial kitchen counters, and conference tables to accommodate the individual needs of employees with disabilities on an “as needed” basis. Consider work surfaces that are flexible and permit installation at variable heights and clearances.

226.2 Dispersion.

Dining surfaces and work surfaces required to comply with 902 shall be dispersed throughout the space or facility containing dining surfaces and work surfaces.

227.1 General.

Where provided, check-out aisles, sales counters, service counters, food service lines, queues, and waiting lines shall comply with 227 and 904.

227.2 Check-Out Aisles.

Where check-out aisles are provided, check-out aisles complying with 904.3 shall be provided in accordance with Table 227.2. Where check-out aisles serve different functions, check-out aisles complying with 904.3 shall be provided in accordance with Table 227.2 for each function. Where check-out aisles are dispersed throughout the building or facility, check-out aisles complying with 904.3 shall be dispersed.

EXCEPTION: Where the selling space is under 5000 square feet (465 m2) no more than one checkout aisle complying with 904.3 shall be required.

Table 227.2 Check-Out Aisles
Number of Check-Out Aisles of Each Function Minimum Number of Check-Out Aisles of Each Function Required to Comply with 904.3
1 to 4 1
5 to 8 2
9 to 15 3
16 and over 3, plus 20 percent of additional aisles
227.2.1 Altered Check-Out Aisles.

Where check-out aisles are altered, at least one of each checkout aisle serving each function shall comply with 904.3 until the number of check-out aisles complies with 227.2. [S.H. 7.3(1)]

227.3 Counters.

Where provided, at least one of each type of sales counter and service counter shall comply with 904.4. Where counters are dispersed throughout the building or facility, counters complying with 904.4 also shall be dispersed.

Advisory 227.3 Counters. Types of counters that provide different services in the same facility include, but are not limited to, order, pick-up, express, and returns. One continuous counter can be used to provide different types of service. For example, order and pick-up are different services. It would not be acceptable to provide access only to the part of the counter where orders are taken when orders are picked-up at a different location on the same counter. Both the order and pick-up section of the counter must be accessible.

227.4 Food Service Lines.

Food service lines shall comply with 904.5. Where self-service shelves are provided, at least 50 percent, but no fewer than one, of each type provided shall comply with 308. [S.H. 5.5]

227.5 Queues and Waiting Lines.

Queues and waiting lines servicing counters or check-out aisles required to comply with 904.3 or 904.4 shall comply with 403.

228.1 General.

Where provided, at least one of each type of depository, vending machine, change machine, and fuel dispenser shall comply with 309.

EXCEPTION: Drive-up only depositories shall not be required to comply with 309.

Advisory 228.1 General. Depositories include, but are not limited to, night receptacles in banks, post offices, video stores, and libraries.

228.2 Mail Boxes.

Where mail boxes are provided in an interior location, at least 5 percent, but no fewer than one, of each type shall comply with 309. In residential facilities, where mail boxes are provided for each residential dwelling unit, mail boxes complying with 309 shall be provided for each residential dwelling unit required to provide mobility features complying with 809.2 through 809.4.

229.1 General.

Where glazed openings are provided in accessible rooms or spaces for operation by occupants, at least one opening shall comply with 309. Each glazed opening required by an administrative authority to be operable shall comply with 309.

EXCEPTION: 1. Glazed openings in residential dwelling units required to comply with 809 shall not be required to comply with 229.

2. Glazed openings in guest rooms required to provide communication features and in guest rooms required to comply with 206.5.3 shall not be required to comply with 229.

230.1 General.

Where a two-way communication system is provided to gain admittance to a building or facility or to restricted areas within a building or facility, the system shall comply with 708.

Advisory 230.1 General. This requirement applies to facilities such as office buildings, courthouses, and other facilities where admittance to the building or restricted spaces is dependent on two-way communication systems.

231.1 General.

Judicial facilities shall comply with 231.

231.2 Courtrooms.

Each courtroom shall comply with 808.

231.3 Holding Cells.

Where provided, central holding cells and court-floor holding cells shall comply with 231.3.

231.3.1 Central Holding Cells.

Where separate central holding cells are provided for adult male, juvenile male, adult female, or juvenile female, one of each type shall comply with 807.2. Where central holding cells are provided and are not separated by age or sex, at least one cell complying with 807.2 shall be provided.

231.3.2 Court-Floor Holding Cells.

Where separate court-floor holding cells are provided for adult male, juvenile male, adult female, or juvenile female, each courtroom shall be served by one cell of each type complying with 807.2. Where court-floor holding cells are provided and are not separated by age or sex, courtrooms shall be served by at least one cell complying with 807.2. Cells may serve more than one courtroom.

231.4 Visiting Areas.

Visiting areas shall comply with 231.4

231.4.1 Cubicles and Counters.

At least 5 percent, but no fewer than one, of cubicles shall comply with 902 on both the visitor and detainee sides. Where counters are provided, at least one shall comply with 904.4.2 on both the visitor and detainee sides.

EXCEPTION: The detainee side of cubicles or counters at non-contact visiting areas not serving holding cells required to comply with 231 shall not be required to comply with 902 or 904.4.2.

231.4.2 Partitions.

Where solid partitions or security glazing separate visitors from detainees at least one of each type of cubicle or counter partition shall comply with 904.6.

232.1 General.

Buildings, facilities, or portions thereof, in which people are detained for penal or correction purposes, or in which the liberty of the inmates is restricted for security reasons shall comply with 232.

Advisory 232.1 General. Detention facilities include, but are not limited to, jails, detention centers, and holding cells in police stations. Correctional facilities include, but are not limited to, prisons, reformatories, and correctional centers.

ETA Editor’s Note:

This Access Board Note was taken from 35.151(k) New Construction and Alterations; Detention and Correctional Facilities. 

Access Board’s Note to Reader:

The Department of Justice’s ADA standards also require the following:

Detention and correctional facilities.  (1) New construction of jails, prisons, and other detention and correctional facilities shall comply with the 2010 Standards except that public entities shall provide accessible mobility features complying with section 807.2 of the 2010 Standards for a minimum of 3%, but no fewer than one, of the total number of cells in a facility. Cells with mobility features shall be provided in each classification level.

(2) Alterations to detention and correctional facilities.  Alterations to jails, prisons, and other detention and correctional facilities shall comply with the 2010 Standards except that public entities shall provide accessible mobility features complying with section 807.2 of the 2010 Standards for a minimum of 3%, but no fewer than one, of the total number of cells being altered until at least 3%, but no fewer than one, of the total number of cells in a facility shall provide mobility features complying with section 807.2.  Altered cells with mobility features shall be provided in each classification level.  However, when alterations are made to specific cells, detention and correctional facility operators may satisfy their obligation to provide the required number of cells with mobility features by providing the required mobility features in substitute cells (cells other than those where alterations are originally planned), provided that each substitute cell—

(i) Is located within the same prison site;

(ii) Is integrated with other cells to the maximum extent feasible;

(iii) Has, at a minimum, equal physical access as the altered cells to areas used by inmates or detainees for visitation, dining, recreation, educational programs, medical services, work programs, religious services, and participation in other programs that the facility offers to inmates or detainees; and,

(iv) If it is technically infeasible to locate a substitute cell within the same prison site, a substitute cell must be provided at another prison site within the corrections system.

(3) With respect to medical and long-term care facilities in jails, prisons, and other detention and correctional facilities, public entities shall apply the 2010 Standards technical and scoping requirements for those facilities irrespective of whether those facilities are licensed. 

232.2 General Holding Cells and General Housing Cells.

General holding cells and general housing cells shall be provided in accordance with 232.2.

EXCEPTION: Alterations to cells shall not be required to comply except to the extent determined by the Attorney General.

Advisory 232.2 General Holding Cells and General Housing Cells. Accessible cells or rooms should be dispersed among different levels of security, housing categories, and holding classifications (e.g., male/female and adult/juvenile) to facilitate access. Many detention and correctional facilities are designed so that certain areas (e.g., “shift” areas) can be adapted to serve as different types of housing according to need. For example, a shift area serving as a medium-security housing unit might be redesignated for a period of time as a high-security housing unit to meet capacity needs. Placement of accessible cells or rooms in shift areas may allow additional flexibility in meeting requirements for dispersion of accessible cells or rooms.

Advisory 232.2 General Holding Cells and General Housing Cells Exception. Although these requirements do not specify that cells be accessible as a consequence of an alteration, title II of the ADA requires that each service, program, or activity conducted by a public entity, when viewed in its entirety, be readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities. This requirement must be met unless doing so would fundamentally alter the nature of a service, program, or activity or would result in undue financial and administrative burdens.

232.2.1 Cells with Mobility Features.

At least 2 percent, but no fewer than one, of the total number of cells in a facility shall provide mobility features complying with 807.2.

232.2.1.1 Beds.

In cells having more than 25 beds, at least 5 percent of the beds shall have clear floor space complying with 807.2.3.

232.2.2 Cells with Communication Features.

At least 2 percent, but no fewer than one, of the total number of general holding cells and general housing cells equipped with audible emergency alarm systems and permanently installed telephones within the cell shall provide communication features complying with 807.3.

232.3 Special Holding Cells and Special Housing Cells.

Where special holding cells or special housing cells are provided, at least one cell serving each purpose shall provide mobility features complying with 807.2. Cells subject to this requirement include, but are not limited to, those used for purposes of orientation, protective custody, administrative or disciplinary detention or segregation, detoxification, and medical isolation.

EXCEPTION: Alterations to cells shall not be required to comply except to the extent determined by the Attorney General.

232.4 Medical Care Facilities.

Patient bedrooms or cells required to comply with 223 shall be provided in addition to any medical isolation cells required to comply with 232.3.

232.5 Visiting Areas.

Visiting areas shall comply with 232.5.

232.5.1 Cubicles and Counters.

At least 5 percent, but no fewer than one, of cubicles shall comply with 902 on both the visitor and detainee sides. Where counters are provided, at least one shall comply with 904.4.2 on both the visitor and detainee or inmate sides.

EXCEPTION: The inmate or detainee side of cubicles or counters at non-contact visiting areas not serving holding cells or housing cells required to comply with 232 shall not be required to comply with 902 or 904.4.2.

232.5.2 Partitions.

Where solid partitions or security glazing separate visitors from detainees or inmates at least one of each type of cubicle or counter partition shall comply with 904.6.

233.1 General.

Facilities with residential dwelling units shall comply with 233.

ETA Editor’s Note:

For 35.151(e) New Construction and Alterations; Social Service Center Establishments, 36.406(d) Standards for New Construction and Alterations; Social Service Center Establishments, 35.151(f) New Construction and Alterations; Housing at a Place of Education, and 36.406(e) Standards of New Construction and Alterations; Housing at a Place of Education please see Access Board’s Note to Reader after Section 233.3.5

Advisory 233.1 General. Section 233 outlines the requirements for residential facilities subject to the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. The facilities covered by Section 233, as well as other facilities not covered by this section, may still be subject to other Federal laws such as the Fair Housing Act and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended. For example, the Fair Housing Act requires that certain residential structures having four or more multi-family dwelling units, regardless of whether they are privately owned or federally assisted, include certain features of accessible and adaptable design according to guidelines established by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). These laws and the appropriate regulations should be consulted before proceeding with the design and construction of residential facilities.

Residential facilities containing residential dwelling units provided by entities subject to HUD’s Section 504 regulations and residential dwelling units covered by Section 233.3 must comply with the technical and scoping requirements in Chapters 1 through 10 included this document. Section 233 is not a stand-alone section; this section only addresses the minimum number of residential dwelling units within a facility required to comply with Chapter 8. However, residential facilities must also comply with the requirements of this document. For example: Section 206.5.4 requires all doors and doorways providing user passage in residential dwelling units providing mobility features to comply with Section 404; Section 206.7.6 permits platform lifts to be used to connect levels within residential dwelling units providing mobility features; Section 208 provides general scoping for accessible parking and Section 208.2.3.1 specifies the required number of accessible parking spaces for each residential dwelling unit providing mobility features; Section 228.2 requires mail boxes to be within reach ranges when they serve residential dwelling units providing mobility features; play areas are addressed in Section 240; and swimming pools are addressed in Section 242. There are special provisions applicable to facilities containing residential dwelling units at: Exception 3 to 202.3; Exception to 202.4; 203.8; and Exception 4 to 206.2.3.

233.2 Residential Dwelling Units Provided by Entities Subject to HUD Section 504 Regulations.

Where facilities with residential dwelling units are provided by entities subject to regulations issued by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended, such entities shall provide residential dwelling units with mobility features complying with 809.2 through 809.4 in a number required by the applicable HUD regulations. Residential dwelling units required to provide mobility features complying with 809.2 through 809.4 shall be on an accessible route as required by 206. In addition, such entities shall provide residential dwelling units with communication features complying with 809.5 in a number required by the applicable HUD regulations. Entities subject to 233.2 shall not be required to comply with 233.3.

Advisory 233.2 Residential Dwelling Units Provided by Entities Subject to HUD Section 504 Regulations. Section 233.2 requires that entities subject to HUD’s regulations implementing Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended, provide residential dwelling units containing mobility features and residential dwelling units containing communication features complying with these regulations in a number specified in HUD’s Section 504 regulations. Further, the residential dwelling units provided must be dispersed according to HUD’s Section 504 criteria. In addition, Section 233.2 defers to HUD the specification of criteria by which the technical requirements of this document will apply to alterations of existing facilities subject to HUD’s Section 504 regulations.

233.3 Residential Dwelling Units Provided by Entities Not Subject to HUD Section 504 Regulations.

Facilities with residential dwelling units provided by entities not subject to regulations issued by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended, shall comply with 233.3.

233.3.1 Minimum Number: New Construction.

Newly constructed facilities with residential dwelling units shall comply with 233.3.1.

EXCEPTION: Where facilities contain 15 or fewer residential dwelling units, the requirements of 233.3.1.1 and 233.3.1.2 shall apply to the total number of residential dwelling units that are constructed under a single contract, or are developed as a whole, whether or not located on a common site.

233.3.1.1 Residential Dwelling Units with Mobility Features.

In facilities with residential dwelling units, at least 5 percent, but no fewer than one unit, of the total number of residential dwelling units shall provide mobility features complying with 809.2 through 809.4 and shall be on an accessible route as required by 206.

233.3.1.2 Residential Dwelling Units with Communication Features.

In facilities with residential dwelling units, at least 2 percent, but no fewer than one unit, of the total number of residential dwelling units shall provide communication features complying with 809.5.

233.3.2 Residential Dwelling Units for Sale.

Residential dwelling units offered for sale shall provide accessible features to the extent required by regulations issued by Federal agencies under the Americans with Disabilities Act or Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended.

Advisory 233.3.2 Residential Dwelling Units for Sale. A public entity that conducts a program to build housing for purchase by individual home buyers must provide access according to the requirements of the ADA regulations and a program receiving Federal financial assistance must comply with the applicable Section 504 regulation.

ETA Editor’s Note:

This Access Board Note was taken from 35.151(j) New Construction and Alterations; Facilities with Residential Dwelling Units for Sale to Individual Owners.

Access Board’s Note to Reader:

The Department of Justice’s ADA standards also require the following:

Facilities with residential dwelling units for sale to individual owners.

(1) Residential dwelling units designed and constructed or altered by public entities that will be offered for sale to individuals shall comply with the requirements for residential facilities in the 2010 Standards including sections 233 and 809

(2) The requirements of paragraph (1) also apply to housing programs that are operated by public entities where design and construction of particular residential dwelling units takes place only after a specific buyer has been identified. In such programs, the covered entity must provide the units that comply with the requirements for accessible features to those pre-identified buyers with disabilities who have requested such a unit. 

233.3.3 Additions.

Where an addition to an existing building results in an increase in the number of residential dwelling units, the requirements of 233.3.1 shall apply only to the residential dwelling units that are added until the total number of residential dwelling units complies with the minimum number required by 233.3.1. Residential dwelling units required to comply with 233.3.1.1 shall be on an accessible route as required by 206.

233.3.4 Alterations.

Alterations shall comply with 233.3.4.

EXCEPTION: Where compliance with 809.2, 809.3, or 809.4 is technically infeasible, or where it is technically infeasible to provide an accessible route to a residential dwelling unit, the entity shall be permitted to alter or construct a comparable residential dwelling unit to comply with 809.2 through 809.4 provided that the minimum number of residential dwelling units required by 233.3.1.1 and 233.3.1.2, as applicable, is satisfied.

Advisory 233.3.4 Alterations Exception. A substituted dwelling unit must be comparable to the dwelling unit that is not made accessible. Factors to be considered in comparing one dwelling unit to another should include the number of bedrooms; amenities provided within the dwelling unit; types of common spaces provided within the facility; and location with respect to community resources and services, such as public transportation and civic, recreational, and mercantile facilities.

233.3.4.1 Alterations to Vacated Buildings.

Where a building is vacated for the purposes of alteration, and the altered building contains more than 15 residential dwelling units, at least 5 percent of the residential dwelling units shall comply with 809.2 through 809.4 and shall be on an accessible route as required by 206. In addition, at least 2 percent of the residential dwelling units shall comply with 809.5.

Advisory 233.3.4.1 Alterations to Vacated Buildings. This provision is intended to apply where a building is vacated with the intent to alter the building. Buildings that are vacated solely for pest control or asbestos removal are not subject to the requirements to provide residential dwelling units with mobility features or communication features.

233.3.4.2 Alterations to Individual Residential Dwelling Units.

In individual residential dwelling units, where a bathroom or a kitchen is substantially altered, and at least one other room is altered, the requirements of 233.3.1 shall apply to the altered residential dwelling units until the total number of residential dwelling units complies with the minimum number required by 233.3.1.1 and 233.3.1.2. Residential dwelling units required to comply with 233.3.1.1 shall be on an accessible route as required by 206.

EXCEPTION: Where facilities contain 15 or fewer residential dwelling units, the requirements of 233.3.1.1 and 233.3.1.2 shall apply to the total number of residential dwelling units that are altered under a single contract, or are developed as a whole, whether or not located on a common site.

Advisory 233.3.4.2 Alterations to Individual Residential Dwelling Units. Section 233.3.4.2 uses the terms “substantially altered” and “altered.” A substantial alteration to a kitchen or bathroom includes, but is not limited to, alterations that are changes to or rearrangements in the plan configuration, or replacement of cabinetry. Substantial alterations do not include normal maintenance or appliance and fixture replacement, unless such maintenance or replacement requires changes to or rearrangements in the plan configuration, or replacement of cabinetry. The term “alteration” is defined both in Section 106 of these requirements and in the Department of Justice ADA regulations.

233.3.5 Dispersion.

Residential dwelling units required to provide mobility features complying with 809.2 through 809.4 and residential dwelling units required to provide communication features complying with 809.5 shall be dispersed among the various types of residential dwelling units in the facility and shall provide choices of residential dwelling units comparable to, and integrated with, those available to other residents.

EXCEPTION: Where multi-story residential dwelling units are one of the types of residential dwelling units provided, one-story residential dwelling units shall be permitted as a substitute for multi-story residential dwelling units where equivalent spaces and amenities are provided in the one-story residential dwelling unit.

ETA Editor’s Note:

This Access Board note was taken from 35.151(e) New Construction and Alterations; Social Service Center Establishments and 36.406(d) Standards for New Construction and Alterations; Social Service Center Establishments.

Access Board’s Note to Reader:

The Department of Justice’s ADA standards also require the following:

Social service center establishments. Group homes, halfway houses, shelters, or similar social service center establishments that provide either temporary sleeping accommodations or residential dwelling units that are subject to this part [of the title III regulation or to this section of the title II regulation] shall comply with the provisions of the 2010 Standards applicable to residential facilities, including, but not limited to, the provisions in sections 233 and 809.

(1) In sleeping rooms with more than 25 beds covered by this part [of the title III regulation or to this section of the title II regulation], a minimum of 5% of the beds shall have clear floor space complying with section 806.2.3 of the 2010 Standards.

(2) Facilities with more than 50 beds covered by this part [of the title III regulation or to this section of the title II regulation] that provide common use bathing facilities shall provide at least one roll-in shower with a seat that complies with the relevant provisions of section 608 of the 2010 Standards.  Transfer-type showers are not permitted in lieu of a roll-in shower with a seat, and the exceptions in sections 608.3 and 608.4 for residential dwelling units are not permitted.  When separate shower facilities are provided for men and for women, at least one roll-in shower shall be provided for each group.  

ETA Editor’s Note:

This Access Board note was taken from 35.151(f) New Construction and Alterations; Housing at a Place of Education and 36.406(e) Standards for New Construction and Alterations; Housing at a Place of Education.

Access Board’s Note to Reader:

Housing at a place of education. Housing at a place of education that is subject to this part [of the title III regulation or to this section of the title II regulation] shall comply with the provisions of the 2010 Standards applicable to transient lodging, including, but not limited to, the requirements for transient lodging guest rooms in sections 224 and 806, subject to the following exceptions. For the purposes of the application of this section, the term "sleeping room" is intended to be used interchangeably with the term "guest room" as it is used in the transient lodging standards.

(1) Kitchens within housing units containing accessible sleeping rooms with mobility features (including suites and clustered sleeping rooms) or on floors containing accessible sleeping rooms with mobility features shall provide turning spaces that comply with section 809.2.2 of the 2010 Standards and kitchen work surfaces that comply with section 804.3 of the 2010 Standards.

(2) Multi-bedroom housing units containing accessible sleeping rooms with mobility features shall have an accessible route throughout the unit in accordance with section 809.2 of the 2010 Standards.

(3) Apartments or townhouse facilities that are provided by or on behalf of a place of education, which are leased on a year-round basis exclusively to graduate students or faculty and do not contain any public use or common use areas available for educational programming, are not subject to the transient lodging standards and shall comply with the requirements for residential facilities in sections 233 and 809 of the 2010 Standards.  

ETA Editor’s Note:

Although not clear from the ADA-related documents, in addition to Transient Lodging requirements under the ADA the Fair Housing Amendments Act also applies to housing at places of education, including dormitory facilities.  Timeshare units, condo hotels, and some types of corporate housing may also be covered by both.  FHAA has dozens of stricter requirements than the ADA Standards for Transient Lodging facilities so dormitory facilities must be designed considering each of the stricter requirements of the ADA Standards and whichever standard is selected for safe harbor under the FHAA. 

234.1 General.

Amusement rides shall comply with 234.

EXCEPTION: Mobile or portable amusement rides shall not be required to comply with 234.

Advisory 234.1 General. These requirements apply generally to newly designed and constructed amusement rides and attractions. A custom designed and constructed ride is new upon its first use, which is the first time amusement park patrons take the ride. With respect to amusement rides purchased from other entities, new refers to the first permanent installation of the ride, whether it is used off the shelf or modified before it is installed. Where amusement rides are moved after several seasons to another area of the park or to another park, the ride would not be considered newly designed or newly constructed.

Some amusement rides and attractions that have unique designs and features are not addressed by these requirements. In those situations, these requirements are to be applied to the extent possible. An example of an amusement ride not specifically addressed by these requirements includes “virtual reality” rides where the device does not move through a fixed course within a defined area. An accessible route must be provided to these rides. Where an attraction or ride has unique features for which there are no applicable scoping provisions, then a reasonable number, but at least one, of the features must be located on an accessible route. Where there are appropriate technical provisions, they must be applied to the elements that are covered by the scoping provisions.

Advisory 234.1 General Exception. Mobile or temporary rides are those set up for short periods of time such as traveling carnivals, State and county fairs, and festivals. The amusement rides that are covered by 234.1 are ones that are not regularly assembled and disassembled.

234.2 Load and Unload Areas.

Load and unload areas serving amusement rides shall comply with 1002.3.

234.3 Minimum Number.

Amusement rides shall provide at least one wheelchair space complying with 1002.4, or at least one amusement ride seat designed for transfer complying with 1002.5, or at least one transfer device complying with 1002.6.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Amusement rides that are controlled or operated by the rider shall not be required to comply with 234.3.

2. Amusement rides designed primarily for children, where children are assisted on and off the ride by an adult, shall not be required to comply with 234.3.

3. Amusement rides that do not provide amusement ride seats shall not be required to comply with 234.3.

Advisory 234.3 Minimum Number Exceptions 1 through 3. Amusement rides controlled or operated by the rider, designed for children, or rides without ride seats are not required to comply with 234.3. These rides are not exempt from the other provisions in 234 requiring an accessible route to the load and unload areas and to the ride. The exception does not apply to those rides where patrons may cause the ride to make incidental movements, but where the patron otherwise has no control over the ride.

Advisory 234.3 Minimum Number Exception 2. The exception is limited to those rides designed “primarily” for children, where children are assisted on and off the ride by an adult. This exception is limited to those rides designed for children and not for the occasional adult user. An accessible route to and turning space in the load and unload area will provide access for adults and family members assisting children on and off these rides.

234.4 Existing Amusement Rides.

Where existing amusement rides are altered, the alteration shall comply with 234.4.

Advisory 234.4 Existing Amusement Rides. Routine maintenance, painting, and changing of theme boards are examples of activities that do not constitute an alteration subject to this section.

234.4.1 Load and Unload Areas.

Where load and unload areas serving existing amusement rides are newly designed and constructed, the load and unload areas shall comply with 1002.3.

234.4.2 Minimum Number.

Where the structural or operational characteristics of an amusement ride are altered to the extent that the amusement ride’s performance differs from that specified by the manufacturer or the original design, the amusement ride shall comply with 234.3.

235.1 General.

Recreational boating facilities shall comply with 235.

235.2 Boat Slips.

Boat slips complying with 1003.3.1 shall be provided in accordance with Table 235.2. Where the number of boat slips is not identified, each 40 feet (12 m) of boat slip edge provided along the perimeter of the pier shall be counted as one boat slip for the purpose of this section.

Table 235.2 Boat Slips
Total Number of Boat Slips Provided in Facility Minimum Number of Required Accessible Boat Slips
1 to 25 1
26 to 50 2
51 to 100 3
101 to 150 4
151 to 300 5
301 to 400 6
401 to 500 7
501 to 600 8
601 to 700 9
701 to 800 10
801 to 900 11
901 to 1000 12
1001 and over 12, plus 1 for every 100, or fraction thereof, over 1000

Advisory 235.2 Boat Slips. The requirement for boat slips also applies to piers where boat slips are not demarcated. For example, a single pier 25 feet (7620 mm) long and 5 feet (1525 mm) wide (the minimum width specified by Section 1003.3) allows boats to moor on three sides. Because the number of boat slips is not demarcated, the total length of boat slip edge (55 feet, 17 m) must be used to determine the number of boat slips provided (two). This number is based on the specification in Section 235.2 that each 40 feet (12 m) of boat slip edge, or fraction thereof, counts as one boat slip. In this example, Table 235.2 would require one boat slip to be accessible.

235.2.1 Dispersion.

Boat slips complying with 1003.3.1 shall be dispersed throughout the various types of boat slips provided. Where the minimum number of boat slips required to comply with 1003.3.1 has been met, no further dispersion shall be required.

Advisory 235.2.1 Dispersion. Types of boat slips are based on the size of the boat slips; whether single berths or double berths, shallow water or deep water, transient or longer term lease, covered or uncovered; and whether slips are equipped with features such as telephone, water, electricity or cable connections. The term “boat slip” is intended to cover any pier area other than launch ramp boarding piers where recreational boats are moored for purposes of berthing, embarking, or disembarking. For example, a fuel pier may contain boat slips, and this type of short term slip would be included in determining compliance with 235.2.

235.3 Boarding Piers at Boat Launch Ramps.

Where boarding piers are provided at boat launch ramps, at least 5 percent, but no fewer than one, of the boarding piers shall comply with 1003.3.2.

236.1 General.

At least one of each type of exercise machine and equipment shall comply with 1004.

Advisory 236.1 General. Most strength training equipment and machines are considered different types. Where operators provide a biceps curl machine and cable-cross-over machine, both machines are required to meet the provisions in this section, even though an individual may be able to work on their biceps through both types of equipment.

Similarly, there are many types of cardiovascular exercise machines, such as stationary bicycles, rowing machines, stair climbers, and treadmills. Each machine provides a cardiovascular exercise and is considered a different type for purposes of these requirements.

237.1 General.

Fishing piers and platforms shall comply with 1005.

238.1 General.

Golf facilities shall comply with 238.

238.2 Golf Courses.

Golf courses shall comply with 238.2.

238.2.1 Teeing Grounds.

Where one teeing ground is provided for a hole, the teeing ground shall be designed and constructed so that a golf car can enter and exit the teeing ground. Where two teeing grounds are provided for a hole, the forward teeing ground shall be designed and constructed so that a golf car can enter and exit the teeing ground. Where three or more teeing grounds are provided for a hole, at least two teeing grounds, including the forward teeing ground, shall be designed and constructed so that a golf car can enter and exit each teeing ground.

EXCEPTION: In existing golf courses, the forward teeing ground shall not be required to be one of the teeing grounds on a hole designed and constructed so that a golf car can enter and exit the teeing ground where compliance is not feasible due to terrain.

238.2.2 Putting Greens.

Putting greens shall be designed and constructed so that a golf car can enter and exit the putting green.

238.2.3 Weather Shelters.

Where provided, weather shelters shall be designed and constructed so that a golf car can enter and exit the weather shelter and shall comply with 1006.4.

238.3 Practice Putting Greens, Practice Teeing Grounds, and Teeing Stations at Driving Ranges.

At least 5 percent, but no fewer than one, of practice putting greens, practice teeing grounds, and teeing stations at driving ranges shall be designed and constructed so that a golf car can enter and exit the practice putting greens, practice teeing grounds, and teeing stations at driving ranges.

239.1 General.

Miniature golf facilities shall comply with 239.

239.2 Minimum Number.

At least 50 percent of holes on miniature golf courses shall comply with 1007.3.

Advisory 239.2 Minimum Number. Where possible, providing access to all holes on a miniature golf course is recommended. If a course is designed with the minimum 50 percent accessible holes, designers or operators are encouraged to select holes which provide for an equivalent experience to the maximum extent possible.

239.3 Miniature Golf Course Configuration.

Miniature golf courses shall be configured so that the holes complying with 1007.3 are consecutive. Miniature golf courses shall provide an accessible route from the last hole complying with 1007.3 to the course entrance or exit without requiring travel through any other holes on the course.

EXCEPTION: One break in the sequence of consecutive holes shall be permitted provided that the last hole on the miniature golf course is the last hole in the sequence.

Advisory 239.3 Miniature Golf Course Configuration. Where only the minimum 50 percent of the holes are accessible, an accessible route from the last accessible hole to the course exit or entrance must not require travel back through other holes. In some cases, this may require an additional accessible route. Other options include increasing the number of accessible holes in a way that limits the distance needed to connect the last accessible hole with the course exit or entrance.

240.1 General.

Play areas for children ages 2 and over shall comply with 240. Where separate play areas are provided within a site for specific age groups, each play area shall comply with 240.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Play areas located in family child care facilities where the proprietor actually resides shall not be required to comply with 240.

2. In existing play areas, where play components are relocated for the purposes of creating safe use zones and the ground surface is not altered or extended for more than one use zone, the play area shall not be required to comply with 240.

3. Amusement attractions shall not be required to comply with 240.

4. Where play components are altered and the ground surface is not altered, the ground surface shall not be required to comply with 1008.2.6 unless required by 202.4.

Advisory 240.1 General. Play areas may be located on exterior sites or within a building. Where separate play areas are provided within a site for children in specified age groups (e.g., preschool (ages 2 to 5) and school age (ages 5 to 12)), each play area must comply with this section. Where play areas are provided for the same age group on a site but are geographically separated (e.g., one is located next to a picnic area and another is located next to a softball field), they are considered separate play areas and each play area must comply with this section.

240.1.1 Additions.

Where play areas are designed and constructed in phases, the requirements of 240 shall apply to each successive addition so that when the addition is completed, the entire play area complies with all the applicable requirements of 240.

Advisory 240.1.1 Additions. These requirements are to be applied so that when each successive addition is completed, the entire play area complies with all applicable provisions. For example, a play area is built in two phases. In the first phase, there are 10 elevated play components and 10 elevated play components are added in the second phase for a total of 20 elevated play components in the play area. When the first phase was completed, at least 5 elevated play components, including at least 3 different types, were to be provided on an accessible route. When the second phase is completed, at least 10 elevated play components must be located on an accessible route, and at least 7 ground level play components, including 4 different types, must be provided on an accessible route. At the time the second phase is complete, ramps must be used to connect at least 5 of the elevated play components and transfer systems are permitted to be used to connect the rest of the elevated play components required to be located on an accessible route.

240.2 Play Components.

Where provided, play components shall comply with 240.2.

240.2.1 Ground Level Play Components.

Ground level play components shall be provided in the number and types required by 240.2.1. Ground level play components that are provided to comply with 240.2.1.1 shall be permitted to satisfy the additional number required by 240.2.1.2 if the minimum required types of play components are satisfied. Where two or more required ground level play components are provided, they shall be dispersed throughout the play area and integrated with other play components.

Advisory 240.2.1 Ground Level Play Components. Examples of ground level play components may include spring rockers, swings, diggers, and stand-alone slides. When distinguishing between the different types of ground level play components, consider the general experience provided by the play component. Examples of different types of experiences include, but are not limited to, rocking, swinging, climbing, spinning, and sliding. A spiral slide may provide a slightly different experience from a straight slide, but sliding is the general experience and therefore a spiral slide is not considered a different type of play component from a straight slide.

Ground level play components accessed by children with disabilities must be integrated into the play area. Designers should consider the optimal layout of ground level play components accessed by children with disabilities to foster interaction and socialization among all children. Grouping all ground level play components accessed by children with disabilities in one location is not considered integrated.

Where a stand-alone slide is provided, an accessible route must connect the base of the stairs at the entry point to the exit point of the slide. A ramp or transfer system to the top of the slide is not required. Where a sand box is provided, an accessible route must connect to the border of the sand box. Accessibility to the sand box would be enhanced by providing a transfer system into the sand or by providing a raised sand table with knee clearance complying with 1008.4.3.

Ramps are preferred over transfer systems since not all children who use wheelchairs or other mobility devices may be able to use, or may choose not to use, transfer systems. Where ramps connect elevated play components, the maximum rise of any ramp run is limited to 12 inches (305 mm). Where possible, designers and operators are encouraged to provide ramps with a slope less than the 1:12 maximum. Berms or sculpted dirt may be used to provide elevation and may be part of an accessible route to composite play structures.

Platform lifts are permitted as a part of an accessible route. Because lifts must be independently operable, operators should carefully consider the appropriateness of their use in unsupervised settings.

240.2.1.1 Minimum Number and Types.

Where ground level play components are provided, at least one of each type shall be on an accessible route and shall comply with 1008.4.

240.2.1.2 Additional Number and Types.

Where elevated play components are provided, ground level play components shall be provided in accordance with Table 240.2.1.2 and shall comply with 1008.4.

EXCEPTION: If at least 50 percent of the elevated play components are connected by a ramp and at least 3 of the elevated play components connected by the ramp are different types of play components, the play area shall not be required to comply with 240.2.1.2.

Table 240.2.1.2 Number and Types of Ground Level Play Components Required to be on Accessible Routes
Number of Elevated Play Components Provided Minimum Number of Ground Level Play Components Required to be on an Accessible Route Minimum Number of Different Types of Ground Level Play Components Required to be on an Accessible Route
1 Not applicable Not applicable
2 to 4 1 1
5 to 7 2 2
8 to 10 3 3
11 to 13 4 3
14 to 16 5 3
17 to 19 6 3
20 to 22 7 4
23 to 25 8 4
26 and over 8, plus 1 for each additional 3, or fraction thereof, over 25 5

Advisory 240.2.1.2 Additional Number and Types. Where a large play area includes two or more composite play structures designed for the same age group, the total number of elevated play components on all the composite play structures must be added to determine the additional number and types of ground level play components that must be provided on an accessible route.

240.2.2 Elevated Play Components.

Where elevated play components are provided, at least 50 percent shall be on an accessible route and shall comply with 1008.4.

Advisory 240.2.2 Elevated Play Components. A double or triple slide that is part of a composite play structure is one elevated play component. For purposes of this section, ramps, transfer systems, steps, decks, and roofs are not considered elevated play components. Although socialization and pretend play can occur on these elements, they are not primarily intended for play.

Some play components that are attached to a composite play structure can be approached or exited at the ground level or above grade from a platform or deck. For example, a climber attached to a composite play structure can be approached or exited at the ground level or above grade from a platform or deck on a composite play structure. Play components that are attached to a composite play structure and can be approached from a platform or deck (e.g., climbers and overhead play components) are considered elevated play components. These play components are not considered ground level play components and do not count toward the requirements in 240.2.1.2 regarding the number of ground level play components that must be located on an accessible route.

241 Saunas and Steam Rooms

241 General. Where provided, saunas and steam rooms shall comply with 612.

EXCEPTION: Where saunas or steam rooms are clustered at a single location, no more than 5 percent of the saunas and steam rooms, but no fewer than one, of each type in each cluster shall be required to comply with 612.

242.1 General.

Swimming pools, wading pools, and spas shall comply with 242.

242.2 Swimming Pools.

At least two accessible means of entry shall be provided for swimming pools. Accessible means of entry shall be swimming pool lifts complying with 1009.2; sloped entries complying with 1009.3; transfer walls complying with 1009.4; transfer systems complying with 1009.5; and pool stairs complying with 1009.6. At least one accessible means of entry provided shall comply with 1009.2 or 1009.3.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Where a swimming pool has less than 300 linear feet (91 m) of swimming pool wall, no more than one accessible means of entry shall be required provided that the accessible means of entry is a swimming pool lift complying with 1009.2 or sloped entry complying with 1009.3.

2. Wave action pools, leisure rivers, sand bottom pools, and other pools where user access is limited to one area shall not be required to provide more than one accessible means of entry provided that the accessible means of entry is a swimming pool lift complying with 1009.2, a sloped entry complying with 1009.3, or a transfer system complying with 1009.5.

3. Catch pools shall not be required to provide an accessible means of entry provided that the catch pool edge is on an accessible route.

Advisory 242.2 Swimming Pools. Where more than one means of access is provided into the water, it is recommended that the means be different. Providing different means of access will better serve the varying needs of people with disabilities in getting into and out of a swimming pool. It is also recommended that where two or more means of access are provided, they not be provided in the same location in the pool. Different locations will provide increased options for entry and exit, especially in larger pools.

Advisory 242.2 Swimming Pools Exception 1. Pool walls at diving areas and areas along pool walls where there is no pool entry because of landscaping or adjacent structures are to be counted when determining the number of accessible means of entry required.

242.3 Wading Pools.

At least one accessible means of entry shall be provided for wading pools. Accessible means of entry shall comply with sloped entries complying with 1009.3.

242.4 Spas.

At least one accessible means of entry shall be provided for spas. Accessible means of entry shall comply with swimming pool lifts complying with 1009.2; transfer walls complying with 1009.4; or transfer systems complying with 1009.5.

EXCEPTION: Where spas are provided in a cluster, no more than 5 percent, but no fewer than one, spa in each cluster shall be required to comply with 242.4.

243.1 General.

Where shooting facilities with firing positions are designed and constructed at a site, at least 5 percent, but no fewer than one, of each type of firing position shall comply with 1010.

301.1 Scope.

The provisions of Chapter 3 shall apply where required by Chapter 2 or where referenced by a requirement in this document.

302.1 General.

Floor and ground surfaces shall be stable, firm, and slip resistant and shall comply with 302.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Within animal containment areas, floor and ground surfaces shall not be required to be stable, firm, and slip resistant.

2. Areas of sport activity shall not be required to comply with 302.

Advisory 302.1 General. A stable surface is one that remains unchanged by contaminants or applied force, so that when the contaminant or force is removed, the surface returns to its original condition. A firm surface resists deformation by either indentations or particles moving on its surface. A slip-resistant surface provides sufficient frictional counterforce to the forces exerted in walking to permit safe ambulation.

302.2 Carpet.

Carpet or carpet tile shall be securely attached and shall have a firm cushion, pad, or backing or no cushion or pad. Carpet or carpet tile shall have a level loop, textured loop, level cut pile, or level cut/uncut pile texture. Pile height shall be ½ inch (13 mm) maximum. Exposed edges of carpet shall be fastened to floor surfaces and shall have trim on the entire length of the exposed edge. Carpet edge trim shall comply with 303.

Advisory 302.2 Carpet. Carpets and permanently affixed mats can significantly increase the amount of force (roll resistance) needed to propel a wheelchair over a surface. The firmer the carpeting and backing, the lower the roll resistance. A pile thickness up to ½ inch (13 mm) (measured to the backing, cushion, or pad) is allowed, although a lower pile provides easier wheelchair maneuvering. If a backing, cushion or pad is used, it must be firm. Preferably, carpet pad should not be used because the soft padding increases roll resistance.

Carpet is shown in cross section with a pile height of 1/2 inch (13 mm) maximum, measured from the backing.

Figure 302.2 Carpet Pile Height

302.3 Openings.

Openings in floor or ground surfaces shall not allow passage of a sphere more than ½ inch (13 mm) diameter except as allowed in 407.4.3, 409.4.3, 410.4, 810.5.3 and 810.10. Elongated openings shall be placed so that the long dimension is perpendicular to the dominant direction of travel.

Elongated openings, such as in a grating, are shown in plan view with openings 1/2 inch (13 mm) maximum in one dimension.  The other dimension is longer (unspecified) and is perpendicular to the dominant direction of travel.

Figure 302.3 Elongated Openings in Floor or Ground Surfaces

303.1 General.

Where changes in level are permitted in floor or ground surfaces, they shall comply with 303.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Animal containment areas shall not be required to comply with 303.

2. Areas of sport activity shall not be required to comply with 303.

303.2 Vertical.

Changes in level of ¼ inch (6.4 mm) high maximum shall be permitted to be vertical.

Elevation drawing of a change in level between the surfaces of two parallel planes with a vertical edge that is 1/4 inch (6.4 mm) high maximum.

Figure 303.2 Vertical Change in Level

303.3 Beveled.

Changes in level between ¼ inch (6.4 mm) high minimum and ½ inch (13 mm) high maximum shall be beveled with a slope not steeper than 1:2.

Advisory 303.3 Beveled. A change in level of ½ inch (13 mm) is permitted to be ¼ inch (6.4 mm) vertical plus ¼ inch (6.4 mm) beveled. However, in no case may the combined change in level exceed ½ inch (13 mm). Changes in level exceeding ½ inch (13 mm) must comply with 405 (Ramps) or 406 (Curb Ramps).

Elevation drawing of a change in level 1/4 to 2 inches (6.4 - 13 mm) high that is beveled with a slope of 1:2.

Figure 303.3 Beveled Change in Level

303.4 Ramps.

Changes in level greater than ½ inch (13 mm) high shall be ramped, and shall comply with 405 or 406.

304.1 General.

Turning space shall comply with 304.

304.2 Floor or Ground Surfaces.

Floor or ground surfaces of a turning space shall comply with 302. Changes in level are not permitted. [S.H. 4.2.4.3]

EXCEPTION: Slopes not steeper than 1:48 shall be permitted.

Advisory 304.2 Floor or Ground Surface Exception. As used in this section, the phrase “changes in level” refers to surfaces with slopes and to surfaces with abrupt rise exceeding that permitted in Section 303.3. Such changes in level are prohibited in required clear floor and ground spaces, turning spaces, and in similar spaces where people using wheelchairs and other mobility devices must park their mobility aids such as in wheelchair spaces, or maneuver to use elements such as at doors, fixtures, and telephones. The exception permits slopes not steeper than 1:48.

304.3 Size.

Turning space shall comply with 304.3.1 or 304.3.2.

304.3.1 Circular Space.

The turning space shall be a space of 60 inches (1525 mm) diameter minimum. The space shall be permitted to include knee and toe clearance complying with 306.

304.3.2 T-Shaped Space.

The turning space shall be a T-shaped space within a 60 inch (1525 mm) square minimum with arms and base 36 inches (915 mm) wide minimum. Each arm of the T shall be clear of obstructions 12 inches (305 mm) minimum in each direction and the base shall be clear of obstructions 24 inches (610 mm) minimum. The space shall be permitted to include knee and toe clearance complying with 306 only at the end of either the base or one arm.

The T shape space is 36 inches (915 mm) wide at the top and stem within a 60 inch by 60 inch (1525 mm by 1525 mm) square.

Figure 304.3.2 T-Shaped Turning Space

304.4 Door Swing.

Doors shall be permitted to swing into turning spaces.

305.1 General.

Clear floor or ground space shall comply with 305.

305.2 Floor or Ground Surfaces.

Floor or ground surfaces of a clear floor or ground space shall comply with 302. Changes in level are not permitted. [S.H. 4.2.4.3]

EXCEPTION: Slopes not steeper than 1:48 shall be permitted.

305.3 Size.

The clear floor or ground space shall be 30 inches (760 mm) minimum by 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum.

Clear floor or ground space is 30 inches by 48 inches (760 mm by 1220 mm) minimum.

Figure 305.3 Clear Floor or Ground Space

305.4 Knee and Toe Clearance.

Unless otherwise specified, clear floor or ground space shall be permitted to include knee and toe clearance complying with 306.

305.5 Position.

Unless otherwise specified, clear floor or ground space shall be positioned for either forward or parallel approach to an element.

For a forward approach to an element, a clear floor or ground space, 30 inches by 48 inches (760 mm by 1220 mm) minimum, is shown with the shorter dimension parallel to the wall or element.

For a parallel approach to an element, a clear floor or ground space, 30 inches by 48 inches (760 mm by 1220 mm) minimum, is shown with the longer dimension parallel to the wall or element.

Figure 305.5 Position of Clear Floor or Ground Space

305.6 Approach.

One full unobstructed side of the clear floor or ground space shall adjoin an accessible route or adjoin another clear floor or ground space.

305.7 Maneuvering Clearance.

Where a clear floor or ground space is located in an alcove or otherwise confined on all or part of three sides, additional maneuvering clearance shall be provided in accordance with 305.7.1 and 305.7.2.

305.7.1 Forward Approach.

Alcoves shall be 36 inches (915 mm) wide minimum where the depth exceeds 24 inches (610 mm).

For a forward approach, if the depth of the alcove is greater than 24 inches (610 mm), the clear floor or ground space within the alcove must be 36 inches (915 mm) wide minimum.

Figure 305.7.1 Maneuvering Clearance in an Alcove, Forward Approach

305.7.2 Parallel Approach.

Alcoves shall be 60 inches (1525 mm) wide minimum where the depth exceeds 15 inches (380 mm).

For a parallel approach, if the depth of the alcove is greater than 15 inches (380 mm), then the length of the clear floor or ground space within the alcove must be 60 inches (1525 mm) minimum.

Figure 305.7.2 Maneuvering Clearance in an Alcove, Parallel Approach

306.1 General.

Where space beneath an element is included as part of clear floor or ground space or turning space, the space shall comply with 306. Additional space shall not be prohibited beneath an element but shall not be considered as part of the clear floor or ground space or turning space.

Advisory 306.1 General. Clearances are measured in relation to the usable clear floor space, not necessarily to the vertical support for an element. When determining clearance under an object for required turning or maneuvering space, care should be taken to ensure the space is clear of any obstructions.

306.2 Toe Clearance.

 

Figure 306.2(a) Toe Clearance: Elevation. Toes of a person in a wheelchair are shown extending for a maximum depth of 6 inches (150 mm) under an object that is 9 inches (230 mm) high minimum.

Figure 306.2(b) Toe Clearance: Plan. Toe clearance at an element, as part of clear floor space, shall extend 17 to 25 inches (430 to 635 mm) under the element. The clear floor space is 30 inches (760 mm) wide minimum.

Figure 306.2 Toe Clearance

306.2.1 General.

Space under an element between the finish floor or ground and 9 inches (230 mm) above the finish floor or ground shall be considered toe clearance and shall comply with 306.2.

306.2.2 Maximum Depth.

Toe clearance shall extend 25 inches (635 mm) maximum under an element.

306.2.3 Minimum Required Depth.

Where toe clearance is required at an element as part of a clear floor space, the toe clearance shall extend 17 inches (430 mm) minimum under the element.

306.2.4 Additional Clearance.

Space extending greater than 6 inches (150 mm) beyond the available knee clearance at 9 inches (230 mm) above the finish floor or ground shall not be considered toe clearance.

306.2.5 Width.

Toe clearance shall be 30 inches (760 mm) wide minimum.

306.3 Knee Clearance.

 

Figure 306.3(a) Knee Clearance: Elevation. Knee clearance is 27 inches (685 mm) high minimum above the floor or ground for a minimum depth of 8 inches (205 mm), measured from the leading edge of the element. The vertical clearance decreases beyond this depth to a height of 9 inches (230 mm) minimum at depth of 11 inches (280 mm) minimum measured from the leading edge of the element.

Figure 306.3(b) Knee Clearance: Plan. Combined knee and toe clearance can extend 25 inches (635 mm) maximum under an element.

Figure 306.3 Knee Clearance

306.3.1 General.

Space under an element between 9 inches (230 mm) and 27 inches (685 mm) above the finish floor or ground shall be considered knee clearance and shall comply with 306.3.

306.3.2 Maximum Depth.

Knee clearance shall extend 25 inches (635 mm) maximum under an element at 9 inches (230 mm) above the finish floor or ground.

306.3.3 Minimum Required Depth.

Where knee clearance is required under an element as part of a clear floor space, the knee clearance shall be 11 inches (280 mm) deep minimum at 9 inches (230 mm) above the finish floor or ground, and 8 inches (205 mm) deep minimum at 27 inches (685 mm) above the finish floor or ground.

306.3.4 Clearance Reduction.

Between 9 inches (230 mm) and 27 inches (685 mm) above the finish floor or ground, the knee clearance shall be permitted to reduce at a rate of 1 inch (25 mm) in depth for each 6 inches (150 mm) in height.

306.3.5 Width.

Knee clearance shall be 30 inches (760 mm) wide minimum.

307.1 General.

Protruding objects shall comply with 307.

307.2 Protrusion Limits.

Objects with leading edges more than 27 inches (685 mm) and not more than 80 inches (2030 mm) above the finish floor or ground shall protrude 4 inches (100 mm) maximum horizontally into the circulation path.

EXCEPTION: Handrails shall be permitted to protrude 4½ inches (115 mm) maximum.

Advisory 307.2 Protrusion Limits. When a cane is used and the element is in the detectable range, it gives a person sufficient time to detect the element with the cane before there is body contact. Elements located on circulation paths, including operable elements, must comply with requirements for protruding objects. For example, awnings and their supporting structures cannot reduce the minimum required vertical clearance. Similarly, casement windows, when open, cannot encroach more than 4 inches (100 mm) into circulation paths above 27 inches (685 mm).


A frontal view shows a person using a cane walking along a wall.  A wall-mounted object more than 27 inches (685 mm) from the floor protrudes no more than 4 inches (100 mm) from the wall surface.  An object overhead provides vertical clearance that is greater than 80 inches (2030 mm).

Figure 307.2 Limits of Protruding Objects

307.3 Post-Mounted Objects.

Free-standing objects mounted on posts or pylons shall overhang circulation paths 12 inches (305 mm) maximum when located 27 inches (685 mm) minimum and 80 inches (2030 mm) maximum above the finish floor or ground. Where a sign or other obstruction is mounted between posts or pylons and the clear distance between the posts or pylons is greater than 12 inches (305 mm), the lowest edge of such sign or obstruction shall be 27 inches (685 mm) maximum or 80 inches (2030 mm) minimum above the finish floor or ground.

EXCEPTION: The sloping portions of handrails serving stairs and ramps shall not be required to comply with 307.3.

Elevation drawing (a) shows an object mounted more than 27 inches (685 mm) high on a post.  The object protrudes 12 inches (305 mm) maximum from the post on both sides.

 Elevation (b) shows signs or other obstructions mounted between posts or pylons.  One object has its lowest edge mounted 27 inches (685 mm) high maximum between posts that are more than 12 inches apart.  Another object is mounted with its lowest edge 80 inches (2030 mm) high minimum between posts that are more than 12 inches apart.

Figure 307.3 Post-Mounted Protruding Objects

307.4 Vertical Clearance.

Vertical clearance shall be 80 inches (2030 mm) high minimum. Guardrails or other barriers shall be provided where the vertical clearance is less than 80 inches (2030 mm) high. The leading edge of such guardrail or barrier shall be located 27 inches (685 mm) maximum above the finish floor or ground.

EXCEPTION: Door closers and door stops shall be permitted to be 78 inches (1980 mm) minimum above the finish floor or ground.

A person using a long cane is shown approaching the sloped underside of a staircase.  A portion of the area below the stairs in front of the person has a vertical clearance less than 80 inches (2030 mm).  A railing 27 inches (685 mm) high maximum separates this space from the areas where a vertical clearance at or above 80 inches (2030 mm) is maintained.

Figure 307.4 Vertical Clearance

307.5 Required Clear Width.

Protruding objects shall not reduce the clear width required for accessible routes.

308.1 General.

Reach ranges shall comply with 308.

Advisory 308.1 General. The following table provides guidance on reach ranges for children according to age where building elements such as coat hooks, lockers, or operable parts are designed for use primarily by children. These dimensions apply to either forward or side reaches. Accessible elements and operable parts designed for adult use or children over age 12 can be located outside these ranges but must be within the adult reach ranges required by 308.

Forward

or Side

Reach

Ages 3

and 4

Ages 5

through 8

Ages 9

through 12

Children's Reach Ranges

High

(maximum)

36 in

(915 mm)

40 in

(1015 mm)

44 in

(1120 mm)

Low

(minimum)

20 in

(510 mm)

18 in

(455 mm)

16 in

(405 mm)

308.2.1 Unobstructed.

Where a forward reach is unobstructed, the high forward reach shall be 48 inches (1220 mm) maximum and the low forward reach shall be 15 inches (380 mm) minimum above the finish floor or ground.

A side view is shown of a person suing a wheelchair reaching toward a wall.  The lowest vertical reach point is 15 inches (380 mm) minimum and the highest is 48 inches (1220 mm) maximum.

Figure 308.2.1 Unobstructed Forward Reach

308.2.2 Obstructed High Reach.

Where a high forward reach is over an obstruction, the clear floor space shall extend beneath the element for a distance not less than the required reach depth over the obstruction. The high forward reach shall be 48 inches (1220 mm) maximum where the reach depth is 20 inches (510 mm) maximum. Where the reach depth exceeds 20 inches (510 mm), the high forward reach shall be 44 inches (1120 mm) maximum and the reach depth shall be 25 inches (635 mm) maximum.

Figure (a) shows a person seated in a wheelchair reaching a point on a wall above a protrusion, such as a wall-mounted counter, which is 20 inches (510 mm) deep maximum.  The maximum reach height is 48 inches (1220 mm).
In figure (b), the obstruction is more than 20 inches (510 mm) deep, with 25 inches (635 mm) the maximum depth.  The maximum reach height is 44 inches (1120 mm).

Figure 308.2.2 Obstructed High Forward Reach

308.3.1 Unobstructed.

Where a clear floor or ground space allows a parallel approach to an element and the side reach is unobstructed, the high side reach shall be 48 inches (1220 mm) maximum and the low side reach shall be 15 inches (380 mm) minimum above the finish floor or ground. [S.H. 4.2.6]

EXCEPTIONS: 1. An obstruction shall be permitted between the clear floor or ground space and the element where the depth of the obstruction is 10 inches (255 mm) maximum.

2. Operable parts of fuel dispensers shall be permitted to be 54 inches (1370 mm) maximum measured from the surface of the vehicular way where fuel dispensers are installed on existing curbs.

The drawing shows a frontal view of a person using a wheelchair making a side reach to a wall.  The depth of reach is 10 inches (255 mm) maximum.  The vertical reach range is 15 inches (380 mm) minimum to 48 inches (1220 mm) maximum.

Figure 308.3.1 Unobstructed Side Reach

308.3.2 Obstructed High Reach.

Where a clear floor or ground space allows a parallel approach to an element and the high side reach is over an obstruction, the height of the obstruction shall be 34 inches (865 mm) maximum and the depth of the obstruction shall be 24 inches (610 mm) maximum. The high side reach shall be 48 inches (1220 mm) maximum for a reach depth of 10 inches (255 mm) maximum. Where the reach depth exceeds 10 inches (255 mm), the high side reach shall be 46 inches (1170 mm) maximum for a reach depth of 24 inches (610 mm) maximum. [S.H. 4.2.6]

EXCEPTIONS: 1. The top of washing machines and clothes dryers shall be permitted to be 36 inches (915 mm) maximum above the finish floor.

2. Operable parts of fuel dispensers shall be permitted to be 54 inches (1370 mm) maximum measured from the surface of the vehicular way where fuel dispensers are installed on existing curbs.

Figure (a) shows a frontal view of a person using a wheelchair making a side reach over an obstruction 34 inches high.  The depth of the reach is 10 inches maximum.  The vertical reach range is 48 inches maximum.
Figure (b) shows a frontal view of a person using a wheelchair making a side reach over an obstruction 34 inches high.  The depth of the reach is between 10 inches and 24 inches maximum.  The vertical reach range is 46 inches maximum.

Figure 308.3.2 Obstructed High Side Reach

309.1 General.

Operable parts shall comply with 309.

309.2 Clear Floor Space.

A clear floor or ground space complying with 305 shall be provided.

309.3 Height.

Operable parts shall be placed within one or more of the reach ranges specified in 308.

309.4 Operation.

Operable parts shall be operable with one hand and shall not require tight grasping, pinching, or twisting of the wrist. The force required to activate operable parts shall be 5 pounds (22.2 N) maximum.

EXCEPTION: Gas pump nozzles shall not be required to provide operable parts that have an activating force of 5 pounds (22.2 N) maximum.

401.1 Scope.

The provisions of Chapter 4 shall apply where required by Chapter 2 or where referenced by a requirement in this document.

402.1 General.

Accessible routes shall comply with 402.

402.2 Components.

Accessible routes shall consist of one or more of the following components: walking surfaces with a running slope not steeper than 1:20, doorways, ramps, curb ramps excluding the flared sides, elevators, and platform lifts. All components of an accessible route shall comply with the applicable requirements of Chapter 4.

Advisory 402.2 Components. Walking surfaces must have running slopes not steeper than 1:20, see 403.3. Other components of accessible routes, such as ramps (405) and curb ramps (406), are permitted to be more steeply sloped.

403.1 General.

Walking surfaces that are a part of an accessible route shall comply with 403.

403.2 Floor or Ground Surface.

Floor or ground surfaces shall comply with 302.

403.3 Slope.

The running slope of walking surfaces shall not be steeper than 1:20. The cross slope of walking surfaces shall not be steeper than 1:48.

403.4 Changes in Level.

Changes in level shall comply with 303.

403.5 Clearances.

Walking surfaces shall provide clearances complying with 403.5.

EXCEPTION: Within employee work areas, clearances on common use circulation paths shall be permitted to be decreased by work area equipment provided that the decrease is essential to the function of the work being performed.

403.5.1 Clear Width.

Except as provided in 403.5.2 and 403.5.3, the clear width of walking surfaces shall be 36 inches (915 mm) minimum.

EXCEPTION: The clear width shall be permitted to be reduced to 32 inches (815 mm) minimum for a length of 24 inches (610 mm) maximum provided that reduced width segments are separated by segments that are 48 inches (1220 mm) long minimum and 36 inches (915 mm) wide minimum. [S.H. 4.2.1]

Shown in plan view, the minimum clear width of walking surfaces is 36 inches (915 mm) minimum, but can be reduced to 32 inches (815 mm) for a length of 24 inches (610 mm) maximum, provided that the reduced width segments are at least 48 inches (1220 mm) apart.

Figure 403.5.1 Clear Width of an Accessible Route

403.5.2 Clear Width at Turn.

Where the accessible route makes a 180 degree turn around an element which is less than 48 inches (1220 mm) wide, clear width shall be 42 inches (1065 mm) minimum approaching the turn, 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum at the turn and 42 inches (1065 mm) minimum leaving the turn.

EXCEPTION: Where the clear width at the turn is 60 inches (1525 mm) minimum compliance with 403.5.2 shall not be required.

Two alternative plan views are shown of an accessible route that has a 180 degree turn about an object less than 48 inches (1220 mm) wide.  In figure (a), the clear width is 42 inches (1065 mm) minimum approaching the turn, 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum at the turn, and 42 inches (1065 mm) minimum leaving the turn.
Two alternative plan views are shown of an accessible route that has a 180 degree turn about an object less than 48 inches (1220 mm) wide.   In figure (b), the clear width is 36 inches (915 mm) minimum approaching the turn, 60 inches (1525 mm) minimum at the turn, and 36 inches (915 mm) minimum leaving the turn.

Figure 403.5.2 Clear Width at Turn

403.5.3 Passing Spaces.

An accessible route with a clear width less than 60 inches (1525 mm) shall provide passing spaces at intervals of 200 feet (61 m) maximum. Passing spaces shall be either: a space 60 inches (1525 mm) minimum by 60 inches (1525 mm) minimum; or, an intersection of two walking surfaces providing a T-shaped space complying with 304.3.2 where the base and arms of the T-shaped space extend 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum beyond the intersection. [S.H. 4.3.4]

403.6 Handrails.

Where handrails are provided along walking surfaces with running slopes not steeper than 1:20 they shall comply with 505.

Advisory 403.6 Handrails. Handrails provided in elevator cabs and platform lifts are not required to comply with the requirements for handrails on walking surfaces.

404.1 General.

Doors, doorways, and gates that are part of an accessible route shall comply with 404.

EXCEPTION: Doors, doorways, and gates designed to be operated only by security personnel shall not be required to comply with 404.2.7, 404.2.8, 404.2.9, 404.3.2 and 404.3.4 through 404.3.7.

Advisory 404.1 General Exception. Security personnel must have sole control of doors that are eligible for the Exception at 404.1. It would not be acceptable for security personnel to operate the doors for people with disabilities while allowing others to have independent access.

404.2 Manual Doors, Doorways, and Manual Gates.

Manual doors and doorways and manual gates intended for user passage shall comply with 404.2.

404.2.1 Revolving Doors, Gates, and Turnstiles.

Revolving doors, revolving gates, and turnstiles shall not be part of an accessible route.

404.2.2 Double-Leaf Doors and Gates.

At least one of the active leaves of doorways with two leaves shall comply with 404.2.3 and 404.2.4.

404.2.3 Clear Width.

Door openings shall provide a clear width of 32 inches (815 mm) minimum. Clear openings of doorways with swinging doors shall be measured between the face of the door and the stop, with the door open 90 degrees. Openings more than 24 inches (610 mm) deep shall provide a clear opening of 36 inches (915 mm) minimum. There shall be no projections into the required clear opening width lower than 34 inches (865 mm) above the finish floor or ground. Projections into the clear opening width between 34 inches (865 mm) and 80 inches (2030 mm) above the finish floor or ground shall not exceed 4 inches (100 mm).

EXCEPTIONS: 1. In alterations, a projection of 5/8 inch (16 mm) maximum into the required clear width shall be permitted for the latch side stop.

2. Door closers and door stops shall be permitted to be 78 inches (1980 mm) minimum above the finish floor or ground.

Figure (a) shows in plan view a hinged door open 90 degrees with a clear opening width 32 inches (815 mm) minimum, measured from the face of the door to the opposite stop.

Figure (b) shows an open sliding door with a clear opening width 32 inches (815 mm) minimum.

Figure (c) shows an open folding door with a clear opening width 32 inches (815 mm) minimum.

Figure 404.2.3 Clear Width of Doorways

404.2.4 Maneuvering Clearances.

Minimum maneuvering clearances at doors and gates shall comply with 404.2.4. Maneuvering clearances shall extend the full width of the doorway and the required latch side or hinge side clearance.  [S.H. 4.13.6]

EXCEPTION: Entry doors to hospital patient rooms shall not be required to provide the clearance beyond the latch side of the door.

404.2.4.1 Swinging Doors and Gates.

Swinging doors and gates shall have maneuvering clearances complying with Table 404.2.4.1.

Table 404.2.4.1 Maneuvering Clearances at Manual Swinging Doors and Gates
Type of Use Minimum Maneuvering Clearance
Approach Direction Door or Gate Side Perpendicular to Doorway Parallel to Doorway (beyond latch side unless noted)
From front Pull 60 inches (1525 mm) 18 inches (455 mm)
From front Push 48 inches (1220 mm) 0 inches (0 mm)1
From hinge side Pull 60 inches (1525 mm) 36 inches (915 mm)
From hinge side Pull 54 inches (1370 mm) 42 inches (1065 mm)
From hinge side Push 42 inches (1065 mm)2 22 inches (560 mm)3
From latch side Pull 48 inches (1220 mm)4 24 inches (610 mm)
From latch side Push 42 inches (1065 mm)4 24 inches (610 mm)

1. Add 12 inches (305 mm) if closer and latch are provided.
2. Add 6 inches (150 mm) if closer and latch are provided.
3. Beyond hinge side.
4. Add 6 inches (150 mm) if closer is provided.

Figure (a) Front approach, pull side. Maneuvering space on the pull side extends 18 inches (455 mm) minimum beyond the latch side of the door and 60 inches (1525 mm) minimum perpendicular to the doorway.
Figure (b) Front approach, push side. Maneuvering space on the push side of doors not equipped with a closer or latch is the same width as the door opening and extends 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum perpendicular to the doorway.
Figure (c) Front approach, push side, door with both closer and latch. Maneuvering space on the push side of doors equipped with both a closer and a latch extends 12 inches (305 mm) minimum beyond the latch side of the door and 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum perpendicular to the doorway.
Figure (d) Hinge approach, pull side. Maneuvering space on the pull side extends 36 inches (915 mm) minimum beyond the latch side of the door and 60 inches (1525 mm) minimum perpendicular to the doorway.
Figure (e) Hinge approach, pull side. Maneuvering space on the pull side extends 42 inches (1065 mm) minimum beyond the latch side of the door, it can extend 54 inches (1370 mm) minimum perpendicular to the doorway.
Figure (f) Hinge approach, push side. Maneuvering space on the push side extends 22 inches (560 mm) from the hinge side of the doorway and 42 inches (1065 mm) at doors that do not have both a closer and a latch.
Figure (g) Hinge approach, push side, door provided with both closer and latch. Maneuvering space on the push side extends 22 inches (560 mm) from the hinge side of the doorway and 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum perpendicular to the doorway at doors with both a closer and a latch.
Figure (h) Latch approach, pull side. Maneuvering space on the pull side extends 24 inches (915 mm) minimum beyond the latch side of the door and 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum measured perpendicular to the doorway where the door does not have both a closer and a latch.
Figure (i) Latch approach, pull side, door provided with closer. Maneuvering space on the pull side extends 24 inches (915 mm) minimum beyond the latch side of the door and 54 inches (1525 mm) minimum perpendicular to the doorway.
Figure (j) Latch approach, push side. Maneuvering space on the push side extends 24 inches (560 mm) from the latch side of the doorway and 42 inches (1065 mm) minimum measured perpendicular to the doorway if the door does not have both a closer and a latch.
Figure (k) Latch approach, push side, door provided with closer. Maneuvering space on the push side extends 24 inches (560 mm) from the latch side of the doorway and 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum perpendicular to the doorway if the door has both a closer and a latch.

Figure 404.2.4.1 Maneuvering Clearances at Manual Swinging Doors and Gates

404.2.4.2 Doorways without Doors or Gates, Sliding Doors, and Folding Doors.

Doorways less than 36 inches (915 mm) wide without doors or gates, sliding doors, or folding doors shall have maneuvering clearances complying with Table 404.2.4.2.

Table 404.2.4.2 Maneuvering Clearances at Doorways without Doors or Gates, Manual Sliding Doors, and Manual Folding Doors

  Minimum Maneuvering Clearance
Approach Direction Perpendicular to Doorway Parallel to Doorway (beyond stop/latch side unless noted)
From Front 48 inches (1220 mm) 0 inches (0 mm)
From side1 42 inches (1065 mm) 0 inches (0 mm)
From pocket/hinge side 42 inches (1065 mm) 22 inches (560 mm)2
From stop/latch side 42 inches (1065 mm) 24 inches (610 mm)

1. Doorway with no door only.
2. Beyond pocket/hinge side.

Figure (a) shows a front approach to a sliding or folding (accordion) door.  Maneuvering clearance is as wide as the door opening and 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum perpendicular to the opening.
Figure (b) shows a doorway without a door.  For a side approach, maneuvering clearance is as wide as the doorway and 42 inches (1065 mm) minimum perpendicular to the doorway.
Figure (c) shows a pocket or hinge approach.  Maneuvering clearance extends 22 inches (560 mm) from the pocket or hinge side and is 42 inches (1065 mm) minimum perpendicular to the doorway.
Figure (d) shows a stop or latch approach.  Maneuvering clearance extends 24 inches (610 mm) from the stop or latch side and is 42 inches (1065 mm) minimum perpendicular to the doorway.

Figure 404.2.4.2 Maneuvering Clearances at Doorways without Doors, Sliding Doors, Gates, and Folding Doors

404.2.4.3 Recessed Doors and Gates.

Maneuvering clearances for forward approach shall be provided when any obstruction within 18 inches (455 mm) of the latch side of a doorway projects more than 8 inches (205 mm) beyond the face of the door, measured perpendicular to the face of the door or gate. [S.H. 4.13.6]

Advisory 404.2.4.3 Recessed Doors and Gates. A door can be recessed due to wall thickness or because of the placement of casework and other fixed elements adjacent to the doorway. This provision must be applied wherever doors are recessed.

Figure (a) shows front approach at doors recessed more than 8 inches (455 mm).  Maneuvering space on the pull side extends 18 inches (455 mm) minimum beyond the latch side of the door and 60 inches (1525 mm) minimum perpendicular to the plane of the doorway.
Figure (b) shows front approaches at doors recessed more than 8 inches (455 mm). On the push side of doors not equipped with a closer or latch, the maneuvering space is the same width as the door opening and extends 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum perpendicular to the plane of the doorway.
Figure (c) shows front approach at doors recessed more than 8 inches (455 mm). On the push side of doors equipped with both a closer and a latch, the maneuvering space extends 12 inches (305 mm) minimum beyond the latch side of the door and 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum measured perpendicular to the plane of the doorway.

Figure 404.2.4.3 Maneuvering Clearance at Recessed Doors and Gates

404.2.4.4 Floor or Ground Surface.

Floor or ground surface within required maneuvering clearances shall comply with 302. Changes in level are not permitted.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Slopes not steeper than 1:48 shall be permitted.

2. Changes in level at thresholds complying with 404.2.5 shall be permitted.

404.2.5 Thresholds.

Thresholds, if provided at doorways, shall be ½ inch (13 mm) high maximum. Raised thresholds and changes in level at doorways shall comply with 302 and 303.

EXCEPTION: Existing or altered thresholds ¾ inch (19 mm) high maximum that have a beveled edge on each side with a slope not steeper than 1:2 shall not be required to comply with 404.2.5.

404.2.6 Doors in Series and Gates in Series.

The distance between two hinged or pivoted doors in series and gates in series shall be 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum plus the width of doors or gates swinging into the space.

Figure (a) shows two doors in series which swing in the same direction.  Space between the doors must be at least 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum plus the width of the in-swinging door.
Figure (b) shows two doors in series which swing away from the space between the doors.  The space separating the doors must be at least 48 inches (1220 mm) long.
Figure (c) shows two doors in series which swing into the space between the doors.  The space between the fully opened doors must be at least 48 inches (1220 mm) long.

Figure 404.2.6 Doors in Series and Gates in Series

404.2.7 Door and Gate Hardware.

Handles, pulls, latches, locks, and other operable parts on doors and gates shall comply with 309.4. Operable parts of such hardware shall be 34 inches (865 mm) minimum and 48 inches (1220 mm) maximum above the finish floor or ground. Where sliding doors are in the fully open position, operating hardware shall be exposed and usable from both sides. [S.H. 4.13.9]

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Existing locks shall be permitted in any location at existing glazed doors without stiles, existing overhead rolling doors or grilles, and similar existing doors or grilles that are designed with locks that are activated only at the top or bottom rail.

2. Access gates in barrier walls and fences protecting pools, spas, and hot tubs shall be permitted to have operable parts of the release of latch on self-latching devices at 54 inches (1370 mm) maximum above the finish floor or ground provided the self-latching devices are not also self-locking devices and operated by means of a key, electronic opener, or integral combination lock.

Advisory 404.2.7 Door and Gate Hardware. Door hardware that can be operated with a closed fist or a loose grip accommodates the greatest range of users. Hardware that requires simultaneous hand and finger movements require greater dexterity and coordination, and is not recommended.

404.2.8 Closing Speed.

Door and gate closing speed shall comply with 404.2.8.

404.2.8.1 Door Closers and Gate Closers.

Door closers and gate closers shall be adjusted so that from an open position of 90 degrees, the time required to move the door to a position of 12 degrees from the latch is 5 seconds minimum. [S.H. 4.13.10]

404.2.8.2 Spring Hinges.

Door and gate spring hinges shall be adjusted so that from the open position of 70 degrees, the door or gate shall move to the closed position in 1.5 seconds minimum.

404.2.9 Door and Gate Opening Force.

Fire doors shall have a minimum opening force allowable by the appropriate administrative authority. The force for pushing or pulling open a door or gate other than fire doors shall be as follows:

1. Interior hinged doors and gates: 5 pounds (22.2 N) maximum.

2. Sliding or folding doors: 5 pounds (22.2 N) maximum.

These forces do not apply to the force required to retract latch bolts or disengage other devices that hold the door or gate in a closed position.

Advisory 404.2.9 Door and Gate Opening Force. The maximum force pertains to the continuous application of force necessary to fully open a door, not the initial force needed to overcome the inertia of the door. It does not apply to the force required to retract bolts or to disengage other devices used to keep the door in a closed position.

404.2.10 Door and Gate Surfaces.

Swinging door and gate surfaces within 10 inches (255 mm) of the finish floor or ground measured vertically shall have a smooth surface on the push side extending the full width of the door or gate. Parts creating horizontal or vertical joints in these surfaces shall be within 1/16 inch (1.6 mm) of the same plane as the other. Cavities created by added kick plates shall be capped. [S.H. 4.13]

ETA Editor’s Note:

An existing door with a noncompliant kick plate is a safe harbored element for path of travel and barrier removal purposes but will have to comply when the door is replaced. 

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Sliding doors shall not be required to comply with 404.2.10.

2. Tempered glass doors without stiles and having a bottom rail or shoe with the top leading edge tapered at 60 degrees minimum from the horizontal shall not be required to meet the 10 inch (255 mm) bottom smooth surface height requirement.

3. Doors and gates that do not extend to within 10 inches (255 mm) of the finish floor or ground shall not be required to comply with 404.2.10.

4. Existing doors and gates without smooth surfaces within 10 inches (255 mm) of the finish floor or ground shall not be required to provide smooth surfaces complying with 404.2.10 provided that if added kick plates are installed, cavities created by such kick plates are capped.

404.2.11 Vision Lights.

Doors, gates, and side lights adjacent to doors or gates, containing one or more glazing panels that permit viewing through the panels shall have the bottom of at least one glazed panel located 43 inches (1090 mm) maximum above the finish floor. [S.H. 4.13]

ETA Editor’s Note:

An existing door with a noncompliant vision light is a safe harbored element for path of travel and barrier removal purposes but will have to comply when the door is replaced. 

EXCEPTION: Vision lights with the lowest part more than 66 inches (1675 mm) from the finish floor or ground shall not be required to comply with 404.2.11.

404.3 Automatic and Power-Assisted Doors and Gates.

Automatic doors and automatic gates shall comply with 404.3. Full-powered automatic doors shall comply with ANSI/BHMA A156.10 (incorporated by reference, see “Referenced Standards” in Chapter 1). Low-energy and power-assisted doors shall comply with ANSI/BHMA A156.19 (1997 or 2002 edition) (incorporated by reference, see “Referenced Standards” in Chapter 1).

404.3.1 Clear Width.

Doorways shall provide a clear opening of 32 inches (815 mm) minimum in power-on and power-off mode. The minimum clear width for automatic door systems in a doorway shall be based on the clear opening provided by all leaves in the open position. [S.H. 4.13.5]

404.3.2 Maneuvering Clearance.

Clearances at power-assisted doors and gates shall comply with 404.2.4. Clearances at automatic doors and gates without standby power and serving an accessible means of egress shall comply with 404.2.4. [S.H. 4.13.12]

EXCEPTION: Where automatic doors and gates remain open in the power-off condition, compliance with 404.2.4 shall not be required.

404.3.3 Thresholds.

Thresholds and changes in level at doorways shall comply with 404.2.5.

404.3.4 Doors in Series and Gates in Series.

Doors in series and gates in series shall comply with 404.2.6.

404.3.5 Controls.

Manually operated controls shall comply with 309. The clear floor space adjacent to the control shall be located beyond the arc of the door swing.

404.3.6 Break Out Opening.

Where doors and gates without standby power are a part of a means of egress, the clear break out opening at swinging or sliding doors and gates shall be 32 inches (815 mm) minimum when operated in emergency mode.

EXCEPTION: Where manual swinging doors and gates comply with 404.2 and serve the same means of egress compliance with 404.3.6 shall not be required.

404.3.7 Revolving Doors, Revolving Gates, and Turnstiles.

Revolving doors, revolving gates, and turnstiles shall not be part of an accessible route.

405.1 General.

Ramps on accessible routes shall comply with 405.

EXCEPTION: In assembly areas, aisle ramps adjacent to seating and not serving elements required to be on an accessible route shall not be required to comply with 405.

405.2 Slope.

Ramp runs shall have a running slope not steeper than 1:12.

EXCEPTION: In existing sites, buildings, and facilities, ramps shall be permitted to have running slopes steeper than 1:12 complying with Table 405.2 where such slopes are necessary due to space limitations.

Table 405.2 Maximum Ramp Slope and Rise for Existing Sites, Buildings, and Facilities
Slope1 Maximum Rise
Steeper than 1:10 but not steeper than 1:8 3 inches (75 mm)
Steeper than 1:12 but not steeper than 1:10 6 inches (150 mm)

1. A slope steeper than 1:8 is prohibited.

Advisory 405.2 Slope. To accommodate the widest range of users, provide ramps with the least possible running slope and, wherever possible, accompany ramps with stairs for use by those individuals for whom distance presents a greater barrier than steps, e.g., people with heart disease or limited stamina.

405.3 Cross Slope.

Cross slope of ramp runs shall not be steeper than 1:48.

Advisory 405.3 Cross Slope. Cross slope is the slope of the surface perpendicular to the direction of travel. Cross slope is measured the same way as slope is measured (i.e., the rise over the run).

405.4 Floor or Ground Surfaces.

Floor or ground surfaces of ramp runs shall comply with 302. Changes in level other than the running slope and cross slope are not permitted on ramp runs.

405.5 Clear Width.

The clear width of a ramp run and, where handrails are provided, the clear width between handrails shall be 36 inches (915 mm) minimum.

EXCEPTION: Within employee work areas, the required clear width of ramps that are a part of common use circulation paths shall be permitted to be decreased by work area equipment provided that the decrease is essential to the function of the work being performed.

405.6 Rise.

The rise for any ramp run shall be 30 inches (760 mm) maximum.

405.7 Landings.

Ramps shall have landings at the top and the bottom of each ramp run. Landings shall comply with 405.7.

Advisory 405.7 Landings. Ramps that do not have level landings at changes in direction can create a compound slope that will not meet the requirements of this document. Circular or curved ramps continually change direction. Curvilinear ramps with small radii also can create compound cross slopes and cannot, by their nature, meet the requirements for accessible routes. A level landing is needed at the accessible door to permit maneuvering and simultaneously door operation.

Figure (a) shows in plan view a ramp with two landings, each 60 inches (1525 mm) long in the direction of the ramp run and as wide as the connecting ramp run.
Figure (b) shows a ramp that has two runs connected by a landing 60 by 60 inches (1525 by 1525 mm); each run is oriented at 90 degrees from the other run, which connect to an adjacent sides of the landing.

Figure 405.7 Ramp Landings

405.7.1 Slope.

Landings shall comply with 302. Changes in level are not permitted.

EXCEPTION: Slopes not steeper than 1:48 shall be permitted.

405.7.2 Width.

The landing clear width shall be at least as wide as the widest ramp run leading to the landing.

405.7.3 Length.

The landing clear length shall be 60 inches (1525 mm) long minimum.

405.7.4 Change in Direction.

Ramps that change direction between runs at landings shall have a clear landing 60 inches (1525 mm) minimum by 60 inches (1525 mm) minimum.

405.7.5 Doorways.

Where doorways are located adjacent to a ramp landing, maneuvering clearances required by 404.2.4 and 404.3.2 shall be permitted to overlap the required landing area.

405.8 Handrails.

Ramp runs with a rise greater than 6 inches (150 mm) shall have handrails complying with 505.

EXCEPTION: Within employee work areas, handrails shall not be required where ramps that are part of common use circulation paths are designed to permit the installation of handrails complying with 505. Ramps not subject to the exception to 405.5 shall be designed to maintain a 36 inch (915 mm) minimum clear width when handrails are installed.

405.9 Edge Protection.

Edge protection complying with 405.9.1 or 405.9.2 shall be provided on each side of ramp runs and at each side of ramp landings.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Edge protection shall not be required on ramps that are not required to have handrails and have sides complying with 406.3.

2. Edge protection shall not be required on the sides of ramp landings serving an adjoining ramp run or stairway.

3. Edge protection shall not be required on the sides of ramp landings having a vertical drop-off of ½ inch (13 mm) maximum within 10 inches (255 mm) horizontally of the minimum landing area specified in 405.7.

405.9.1 Extended Floor or Ground Surface.

The floor or ground surface of the ramp run or landing shall extend 12 inches (305 mm) minimum beyond the inside face of a handrail complying with 505.

Advisory 405.9.1 Extended Floor or Ground Surface. The extended surface prevents wheelchair casters and crutch tips from slipping off the ramp surface.

The cross section of a ramp with handrails is shown where the ramp surface extends 12 inches (305 mm) minimum to the outside of the handrails.

Figure 405.9.1 Extended Floor or Ground Surface Edge Protection

405.9.2 Curb or Barrier.

A curb or barrier shall be provided that prevents the passage of a 4 inch (100 mm) diameter sphere, where any portion of the sphere is within 4 inches (100 mm) of the finish floor or ground surface. [S.H. 4.8.7]

An elevation drawing shows a vertical clearance of less than 4 inches (100 mm) between the ramp surface and the bottom edge of a horizontal rail.

Figure 405.9.2 Curb or Barrier Edge Protection

405.10 Wet Conditions.

Landings subject to wet conditions shall be designed to prevent the accumulation of water.

406.1 General.

Curb ramps on accessible routes shall comply with 406, 405.2 through 405.5, and 405.10.

406.2 Counter Slope.

Counter slopes of adjoining gutters and road surfaces immediately adjacent to the curb ramp shall not be steeper than 1:20. The adjacent surfaces at transitions at curb ramps to walks, gutters, and streets shall be at the same level.

In cross section, a curb ramp with a maximum slope of 1:12 adjoins a surface at the bottom that has a maximum counter slope of 1:20.

Figure 406.2 Counter Slope of Surfaces Adjacent to Curb Ramps

406.3 Sides of Curb Ramps.

Where provided, curb ramp flares shall not be steeper than 1:10.

A curb ramp with triangular flared sides is shown.  The flared sides have a maximum 1:10 slope, measured at the curb face.

Figure 406.3 Sides of Curb Ramps

406.4 Landings.

Landings shall be provided at the tops of curb ramps. The landing clear length shall be 36 inches (915 mm) minimum. The landing clear width shall be at least as wide as the curb ramp, excluding flared sides, leading to the landing. [S.H. 4.7.5]

EXCEPTION: In alterations, where there is no landing at the top of curb ramps, curb ramp flares shall be provided and shall not be steeper than 1:12.

ETA Editor’s Note:

Where insufficient space is available for a top landing, a parallel curb ramp as equivalent facilitation may be a better solution than flared sides. 

A plan view of a curb ramp shows the required top landing which has a length of 36 inches (915 mm) minimum in the direction of the ramp run and is at least as wide as the ramp.

Figure 406.4 Landings at the Top of Curb Ramps

406.5 Location.

Curb ramps and the flared sides of curb ramps shall be located so that they do not project into vehicular traffic lanes, parking spaces, or parking access aisles. Curb ramps at marked crossings shall be wholly contained within the markings, excluding any flared sides.

406.6 Diagonal Curb Ramps.

Diagonal or corner type curb ramps with returned curbs or other well-defined edges shall have the edges parallel to the direction of pedestrian flow. The bottom of diagonal curb ramps shall have a clear space 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum outside active traffic lanes of the roadway. Diagonal curb ramps provided at marked crossings shall provide the 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum clear space within the markings. Diagonal curb ramps with flared sides shall have a segment of curb 24 inches (610 mm) long minimum located on each side of the curb ramp and within the marked crossing.

A plan view of a diagonal curb ramp is shown at a marked crossing.  A space 48 inches (220 mm) minimum, measured in the direction of the ramp run, is provided at the bottom of the ramp outside active traffic lanes and within the boundary of the marked pedestrian crossing.  Sections of curb 24 inches (610 mm) minimum in length are shown beyond the flared sides and within the marked crossing.

Figure 406.6 Diagonal or Corner Type Curb Ramps

406.7 Islands.

Raised islands in crossings shall be cut through level with the street or have curb ramps at both sides. Each curb ramp shall have a level area 48 inches (1220 mm) long minimum by 36 inches (915 mm) wide minimum at the top of the curb ramp in the part of the island intersected by the crossings. Each 48 inch (1220 mm) minimum by 36 inch (915 mm) minimum area shall be oriented so that the 48 inch (1220 mm) minimum length is in the direction of the running slope of the curb ramp it serves. The 48 inch (1220 mm) minimum by 36 inch (915 mm) minimum areas and the accessible route shall be permitted to overlap.

Access Board’s Note to Reader:

The Department of Transportation’s ADA standards require detectable warnings on curb ramps:

406.8 Detectable Warnings. A curb ramp shall have a detectable warning complying with 705. The detectable warning shall extend the full width of the curb ramp (exclusive of flared sides) and shall extend either the full depth of the curb ramp or 24 inches (610 mm) deep minimum measured from the back of the curb on the ramp surface. 

Figure (a) is a plan view of a raised pedestrian island with a walkway cut through at the same level as the street crossing.

Figure (b) is a plan view of a raised pedestrian island between two traffic lanes.  Aligned curb ramps with side flares slope down on each side.  The level space between the top of both ramps is 48 inches (1220 mm) long minimum.  The width of both ramp runs is 36 inches (915 mm).

Figure 406.7 Islands in Crossings

407.1 General.

Elevators shall comply with 407 and with ASME A17.1 (incorporated by reference, see “Referenced Standards” in Chapter 1). They shall be passenger elevators as classified by ASME A17.1. Elevator operation shall be automatic.

Advisory 407.1 General. The ADA and other Federal civil rights laws require that accessible features be maintained in working order so that they are accessible to and usable by those people they are intended to benefit. Building owners should note that the ASME Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators requires routine maintenance and inspections. Isolated or temporary interruptions in service due to maintenance or repairs may be unavoidable; however, failure to take prompt action to effect repairs could constitute a violation of Federal laws and these requirements.

407.2 Elevator Landing Requirements.

Elevator landings shall comply with 407.2.

407.2.1 Call Controls.

Where elevator call buttons or keypads are provided, they shall comply with 407.2.1 and 309.4. Call buttons shall be raised or flush.

EXCEPTION: Existing elevators shall be permitted to have recessed call buttons.

407.2.1.1 Height.

Call buttons and keypads shall be located within one of the reach ranges specified in 308, measured to the centerline of the highest operable part.

EXCEPTION: Existing call buttons and existing keypads shall be permitted to be located at 54 inches (1370 mm) maximum above the finish floor, measured to the centerline of the highest operable part.

407.2.1.2 Size.

Call buttons shall be ¾ inch (19 mm) minimum in the smallest dimension.

EXCEPTION: Existing elevator call buttons shall not be required to comply with 407.2.1.2.

407.2.1.3 Clear Floor or Ground Space.

A clear floor or ground space complying with 305 shall be provided at call controls.

Advisory 407.2.1.3 Clear Floor or Ground Space. The clear floor or ground space required at elevator call buttons must remain free of obstructions including ashtrays, plants, and other decorative elements that prevent wheelchair users and others from reaching the call buttons. The height of the clear floor or ground space is considered to be a volume from the floor to 80 inches (2030 mm) above the floor. Recessed ashtrays should not be placed near elevator call buttons so that persons who are blind or visually impaired do not inadvertently contact them or their contents as they reach for the call buttons.

407.2.1.4 Location.

The call button that designates the up direction shall be located above the call button that designates the down direction.

EXCEPTION: Destination-oriented elevators shall not be required to comply with 407.2.1.4.

Advisory 407.2.1.4 Location Exception. A destination-oriented elevator system provides lobby controls enabling passengers to select floor stops, lobby indicators designating which elevator to use, and a car indicator designating the floors at which the car will stop. Responding cars are programmed for maximum efficiency by reducing the number of stops any passenger experiences.

407.2.1.5 Signals.

Call buttons shall have visible signals to indicate when each call is registered and when each call is answered.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Destination-oriented elevators shall not be required to comply with 407.2.1.5 provided that visible and audible signals complying with 407.2.2 indicating which elevator car to enter are provided.

2. Existing elevators shall not be required to comply with 407.2.1.5.

407.2.1.6 Keypads.

Where keypads are provided, keypads shall be in a standard telephone keypad arrangement and shall comply with 407.4.7.2.

407.2.2 Hall Signals.

Hall signals, including in-car signals, shall comply with 407.2.2.

407.2.2.1 Visible and Audible Signals.

A visible and audible signal shall be provided at each hoistway entrance to indicate which car is answering a call and the car’s direction of travel. Where in-car signals are provided, they shall be visible from the floor area adjacent to the hall call buttons.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Visible and audible signals shall not be required at each destination oriented elevator where a visible and audible signal complying with 407.2.2 is provided indicating the elevator car designation information.

2. In existing elevators, a signal indicating the direction of car travel shall not be required.

407.2.2.2 Visible Signals.

Visible signal fixtures shall be centered at 72 inches (1830 mm) minimum above the finish floor or ground. The visible signal elements shall be 2½ inches (64 mm) minimum measured along the vertical centerline of the element. Signals shall be visible from the floor area adjacent to the hall call button.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Destination-oriented elevators shall be permitted to have signals visible from the floor area adjacent to the hoistway entrance.

2. Existing elevators shall not be required to comply with 407.2.2.2.

Visible signals are shown centered at 72 inches (1830 mm) minimum above the floor ground.  The individual “up” and “down” elements, one with circular elements, another with triangular elements, are 2 1/2 inches (64 mm) minimum measured along the vertical centerline of the element.

Figure 407.2.2.2 Visible Hall Signals

407.2.2.3 Audible Signals.

Audible signals shall sound once for the up direction and twice for the down direction, or shall have verbal annunciators that indicate the direction of elevator car travel. Audible signals shall have a frequency of 1500 Hz maximum. Verbal annunciators shall have a frequency of 300 Hz minimum and 3000 Hz maximum. The audible signal and verbal annunciator shall be 10 dB minimum above ambient, but shall not exceed 80 dB, measured at the hall call button.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Destination-oriented elevators shall not be required to comply with 407.2.2.3 provided that the audible tone and verbal announcement is the same as those given at the call button or call button keypad.

2. Existing elevators shall not be required to comply with the requirements for frequency and dB range of audible signals.

407.2.2.4 Differentiation.

Each destination-oriented elevator in a bank of elevators shall have audible and visible means for differentiation.

407.2.3 Hoistway Signs.

Signs at elevator hoistways shall comply with 407.2.3.

407.2.3.1 Floor Designation.

Floor designations complying with 703.2 and 703.4.1 shall be provided on both jambs of elevator hoistway entrances. Floor designations shall be provided in both tactile characters and braille. Tactile characters shall be 2 inches (51 mm) high minimum. A tactile star shall be provided on both jambs at the main entry level. [S.H. 4.10.5]

An enlarged detail of a tactile floor designation is shown.  The sign contains a star and the number "1" next to it which is 2 inches (51 mm) high; the braille equivalent is provided below each.

Figure 407.2.3.1 Floor Designations on Jambs of Elevator Hoistway Entrances

407.2.3.2 Car Designations.

Destination-oriented elevators shall provide tactile car identification complying with 703.2 on both jambs of the hoistway immediately below the floor designation. Car designations shall be provided in both tactile characters and braille. Tactile characters shall be 2 inches (51 mm) high minimum.

 

An enlarged detail shows the car designation below the floor designation.  The car designation is 2 inches (51 mm) minimum high with the braille equivalent below it.

Figure 407.2.3.2 Car Designations on Jambs of Destination-Oriented Elevator Hoistway Entrances

407.3 Elevator Door Requirements.

Hoistway and car doors shall comply with 407.3.

407.3.1 Type.

Elevator doors shall be the horizontal sliding type. Car gates shall be prohibited.

407.3.2 Operation.

Elevator hoistway and car doors shall open and close automatically.

EXCEPTION: Existing manually operated hoistway swing doors shall be permitted provided that they comply with 404.2.3 and 404.2.9. Car door closing shall not be initiated until the hoistway door is closed. [S.H. 4.1.6(3)(c)(i)], [S.H. 4.1.6(3)(c)(ii)]

407.3.3 Reopening Device.

Elevator doors shall be provided with a reopening device complying with 407.3.3 that shall stop and reopen a car door and hoistway door automatically if the door becomes obstructed by an object or person. [S.H. 4.1.6(3)(c)(i)]

EXCEPTION: Existing elevators with manually operated doors shall not be required to comply with 407.3.3.

407.3.3.1 Height.

The device shall be activated by sensing an obstruction passing through the opening at 5 inches (125 mm) nominal and 29 inches (735 mm) nominal above the finish floor.

407.3.3.2 Contact.

The device shall not require physical contact to be activated, although contact is permitted to occur before the door reverses.

407.3.3.3 Duration.

Door reopening devices shall remain effective for 20 seconds minimum.

407.3.4 Door and Signal Timing.

The minimum acceptable time from notification that a car is answering a call or notification of the car assigned at the means for the entry of destination information until the doors of that car start to close shall be calculated from the following equation: T = D/(1.5 ft/s) or T = D/(455 mm/s) = 5 seconds minimum where T equals the total time in seconds and D equals the distance (in feet or millimeters) from the point in the lobby or corridor 60 inches (1525 mm) directly in front of the farthest call button controlling that car to the centerline of its hoistway door.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. For cars with in-car lanterns, T shall be permitted to begin when the signal is visible from the point 60 inches (1525 mm) directly in front of the farthest hall call button and the audible signal is sounded.

2. Destination-oriented elevators shall not be required to comply with 407.3.4.

407.3.5 Door Delay.

Elevator doors shall remain fully open in response to a car call for 3 seconds minimum.

407.3.6 Width.

The width of elevator doors shall comply with Table 407.4.1. [S.H. 4.10.9]

EXCEPTION: In existing elevators, a power-operated car door complying with 404.2.3 shall be permitted.

407.4 Elevator Car Requirements.

Elevator cars shall comply with 407.4.

407.4.1 Car Dimensions.

Inside dimensions of elevator cars and clear width of elevator doors shall comply with Table 407.4.1. [S.H. 4.10.9], [S.H. 10.3.1(17)]

EXCEPTION: Existing elevator car configurations that provide a clear floor area of 16 square feet (1.5 m2) minimum and also provide an inside clear depth 54 inches (1370 mm) minimum and a clear width 36 inches (915 mm) minimum shall be permitted. [S.H. 4.1.6(3)(c)(ii)], [S.H. 4.1.6(3)(c)(iii)]

Table 407.4.1 Elevator Car Dimensions
  Minimum Dimensions
Door Location Door Clear Width Inside Car, Side to Side Inside Car, Back Wall to Front Return Inside Car, Back Wall to Inside Face of Door
Centered

42 inches

(1065 mm)

80 inches

(2030 mm)

51 inches

(1295 mm)

54 inches

(1370 mm)

Side

(off-centered)

36 inches

(915 mm)1

68 inches

(1725 mm)

51 inches

(1295 mm)

54 inches

(1370 mm)

Any

36 inches

(915 mm)1

54 inches

(1370 mm)

80 inches

(2030 mm)

80 inches

(2030 mm)

Any

36 inches

(915 mm)1

60 inches

(1525 mm)2

60 inches

(1525 mm)2

60 inches

(1525 mm)2

1. A tolerance of minus 5/8 inch (16 mm) is permitted.

2. Other car configurations that provide a turning space complying with 304 with the door closed shall be permitted.

Figure (a) shows an elevator car with a centered door.  The door clear width is 42 inches (1065 mm) minimum and the car width measured side to side is 80 inches (2030 mm) minimum.  The car depth is 51 inches (1295 mm) minimum measured from the back wall to the front return, and 54 inches (1370 mm) minimum measured from the back wall to the inside face of the door.
Figure (b) shows an elevator car with an off-centered door. The door clear width is 36 inches (915 mm) minimum and the car width measured side to side is 68 inches (1725 mm) minimum.  The depth is 51 inches (1295 mm) minimum measured from the back wall to the front return, and 54 inches (1370 mm) minimum measured from the back wall to the inside face of the door.
Figure (c) shows a car with a clear door width of 36 inches (915 mm) minimum and the car width measured side to side is 54 inches (1370 mm) minimum.  The car depth is 80 inches (2030 mm) minimum measured from the back wall to the front return.
Figure (d) shows a car with a clear door width of 36 inches (915 mm) minimum and the car width measured side to side is 60 inches (1525 mm) minimum.  The car depth is 60 inches (1525 mm) minimum measured from the back wall to the front return.
Figure (e) illustrates the exception for an existing elevator car configuration.  The car depth is 54 inches (1370 mm) minimum, the width is 39 inches (915 mm) minimum, and the clear floor area is 16 square feet (1.5 square m) minimum.

Figure 407.4. Elevator Car Dimensions

407.4.2 Floor Surfaces.

Floor surfaces in elevator cars shall comply with 302 and 303.

407.4.3 Platform to Hoistway Clearance.

The clearance between the car platform sill and the edge of any hoistway landing shall be 1¼ inch (32 mm) maximum.

407.4.4 Leveling.

Each car shall be equipped with a self-leveling feature that will automatically bring and maintain the car at floor landings within a tolerance of ½ inch (13 mm) under rated loading to zero loading conditions.

407.4.5 Illumination.

The level of illumination at the car controls, platform, car threshold and car landing sill shall be 5 foot candles (54 lux) minimum.

407.4.6 Elevator Car Controls.

Where provided, elevator car controls shall comply with 407.4.6 and 309.4.

EXCEPTION: In existing elevators, where a new car operating panel complying with 407.4.6 is provided, existing car operating panels shall not be required to comply with 407.4.6.

407.4.6.1 Location.

Controls shall be located within one of the reach ranges specified in 308.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Where the elevator panel serves more than 16 openings and a parallel approach is provided, buttons with floor designations shall be permitted to be 54 inches (1370 mm) maximum above the finish floor.

2. In existing elevators, car control buttons with floor designations shall be permitted to be located 54 inches (1370 mm) maximum above the finish floor where a parallel approach is provided.

407.4.6.2 Buttons.

Car control buttons with floor designations shall comply with 407.4.6.2 and shall be raised or flush.

EXCEPTION: In existing elevators, buttons shall be permitted to be recessed.

407.4.6.2.1 Size.

Buttons shall be 3/4 inch (19 mm) minimum in their smallest dimension.

407.4.6.2.2 Arrangement.

Buttons shall be arranged with numbers in ascending order. When two or more columns of buttons are provided they shall read from left to right.

407.4.6.3 Keypads.

Car control keypads shall be in a standard telephone keypad arrangement and shall comply with 407.4.7.2.

407.4.6.4 Emergency Controls.

Emergency controls shall comply with 407.4.6.4.

407.4.6.4.1 Height.

Emergency control buttons shall have their centerlines 35 inches (890 mm) minimum above the finish floor.

407.4.6.4.2 Location.

Emergency controls, including the emergency alarm, shall be grouped at the bottom of the panel.

407.4.7 Designations and Indicators of Car Controls.

Designations and indicators of car controls shall comply with 407.4.7.

EXCEPTION: In existing elevators, where a new car operating panel complying with 407.4.7 is provided, existing car operating panels shall not be required to comply with 407.4.7.

407.4.7.1 Buttons.

Car control buttons shall comply with 407.4.7.1.

407.4.7.1.1 Type.

Control buttons shall be identified by tactile characters complying with 703.2.

407.4.7.1.2 Location.

Raised character and braille designations shall be placed immediately to the left of the control button to which the designations apply.

EXCEPTION: Where space on an existing car operating panel precludes tactile markings to the left of the controls, markings shall be placed as near to the control as possible.

407.4.7.1.3 Symbols.

The control button for the emergency stop, alarm, door open, door close, main entry floor, and phone, shall be identified with tactile symbols as shown in Table 407.4.7.1.3. [S.H. 4.10.12]

Table 407.4.7.1.3 Elevator Control Button Identification
Control Button Tactile Symbol Braille Message
Emergency Stop
Elevator "emergency stop" symbol

Elevator "emergency stop" in braille
"ST"OP Three cells
 
Alarm
Elevator "alarm" symbol

Elevator "alarm" in braille
AL"AR"M Four cells
Door Open
"Door open" elevator symbol

Elevator "door open" in braille
OP"EN" Three cells
Door Close
"Door close" elevator symbol

Elevator "door close" in braille
CLOSE Five cells
Main Entry Floor
Elevator "main entry floor" symbol

Elevator "main entry floor" in braille
MA"IN" Three cells
Phone
Elevator "phone" symbol

Elevator "phone" in braille
PH"ONE" Four cells

407.4.7.1.4 Visible Indicators.

Buttons with floor designations shall be provided with visible indicators to show that a call has been registered. The visible indication shall extinguish when the car arrives at the designated floor.

407.4.7.2 Keypads.

Keypads shall be identified by characters complying with 703.5 and shall be centered on the corresponding keypad button. The number five key shall have a single raised dot. The dot shall be 0.118 inch (3 mm) to 0.120 inch (3.05 mm) base diameter and in other aspects comply with Table 703.3.1.

407.4.8 Car Position Indicators.

Audible and visible car position indicators shall be provided in elevator cars.

407.4.8.1 Visible Indicators.

Visible indicators shall comply with 407.4.8.1.

407.4.8.1.1 Size.

Characters shall be ½ inch (13 mm) high minimum.

407.4.8.1.2 Location.

Indicators shall be located above the car control panel or above the door.

407.4.8.1.3 Floor Arrival.

As the car passes a floor and when a car stops at a floor served by the elevator, the corresponding character shall illuminate.

EXCEPTION: Destination-oriented elevators shall not be required to comply with 407.4.8.1.3 provided that the visible indicators extinguish when the call has been answered.

407.4.8.1.4 Destination Indicator.

In destination-oriented elevators, a display shall be provided in the car with visible indicators to show car destinations.

407.4.8.2 Audible Indicators.

Audible indicators shall comply with 407.4.8.2.

407.4.8.2.1 Signal Type.

The signal shall be an automatic verbal annunciator which announces the floor at which the car is about to stop. [S.H. 4.10.13]

EXCEPTION: For elevators other than destination-oriented elevators that have a rated speed of 200 feet per minute (1 m/s) or less, a non-verbal audible signal with a frequency of 1500 Hz maximum which sounds as the car passes or is about to stop at a floor served by the elevator shall be permitted.

407.4.8.2.2 Signal Level.

The verbal annunciator shall be 10 dB minimum above ambient, but shall not exceed 80 dB, measured at the annunciator.

407.4.8.2.3 Frequency.

The verbal annunciator shall have a frequency of 300 Hz minimum to 3000 Hz maximum.

407.4.9 Emergency Communication.

Emergency two-way communication systems shall comply with 308. Tactile symbols and characters shall be provided adjacent to the device and shall comply with 703.2.

408.1 General.

Limited-use/limited-application elevators shall comply with 408 and with ASME A17.1 (incorporated by reference, see “Referenced Standards” in Chapter 1). They shall be passenger elevators as classified by ASME A17.1. Elevator operation shall be automatic.

408.2 Elevator Landings.

Landings serving limited-use/limited-application elevators shall comply with 408.2.

408.2.1 Call Buttons.

Elevator call buttons and keypads shall comply with 407.2.1.

408.2.2 Hall Signals.

Hall signals shall comply with 407.2.2.

408.2.3 Hoistway Signs.

Signs at elevator hoistways shall comply with 407.2.3.1.

408.3 Elevator Doors.

Elevator hoistway doors shall comply with 408.3.

408.3.1 Sliding Doors.

Sliding hoistway and car doors shall comply with 407.3.1 through 407.3.3 and 408.4.1.

408.3.2 Swinging Doors.

Swinging hoistway doors shall open and close automatically and shall comply with 404, 407.3.2 and 408.3.2.

408.3.2.1 Power Operation.

Swinging doors shall be power-operated and shall comply with ANSI/BHMA A156.19 (1997 or 2002 edition) (incorporated by reference, see “Referenced Standards” in Chapter 1).

408.3.2.2 Duration.

Power-operated swinging doors shall remain open for 20 seconds minimum when activated.

408.4 Elevator Cars.

Elevator cars shall comply with 408.4.

408.4.1 Car Dimensions and Doors.

Elevator cars shall provide a clear width 42 inches (1065 mm) minimum and a clear depth 54 inches (1370 mm) minimum. Car doors shall be positioned at the narrow ends of cars and shall provide 32 inches (815 mm) minimum clear width.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Cars that provide a clear width 51 inches (1295 mm) minimum shall be permitted to provide a clear depth 51 inches (1295 mm) minimum provided that car doors provide a clear opening 36 inches (915 mm) wide minimum.

2. Existing elevator cars shall be permitted to provide a clear width 36 inches (915 mm) minimum, clear depth 54 inches (1370 mm) minimum, and a net clear platform area 15 square feet (1.4 m2) minimum.

Figure (a) shows the configuration for new construction.  The door clear width is 32 inches (815 mm) minimum and the car width measured side to side is 42 inches (1065 mm) minimum.  The car depth is 54 inches (1370 mm) minimum.
Figure (b) illustrates Exception 1.  The door width is 36 inches (815 mm) minimum and the car has a clear interior space 51 by 51 inches (1295 by 1295 mm) minimum.
Figure (c) illustrates Exception 2.  The car width is 36 inches (915 mm) minimum, the depth is 54 inches (1370 mm) minimum, and the net clear car area is 15 square feet (1.4 square m) minimum.

Figure 408.4.1 Limited-Use/Limited-Application (LULA) Elevator Car Dimensions

408.4.2 Floor Surfaces.

Floor surfaces in elevator cars shall comply with 302 and 303.

408.4.3 Platform to Hoistway Clearance.

The platform to hoistway clearance shall comply with 407.4.3.

408.4.4 Leveling.

Elevator car leveling shall comply with 407.4.4.

408.4.5 Illumination.

Elevator car illumination shall comply with 407.4.5.

408.4.6 Car Controls.

Elevator car controls shall comply with 407.4.6. Control panels shall be centered on a side wall.

408.4.7 Designations and Indicators of Car Controls.

Designations and indicators of car controls shall comply with 407.4.7.

408.4.8 Emergency Communications.

Car emergency signaling devices complying with 407.4.9 shall be provided.

409.1 General.

Private residence elevators that are provided within a residential dwelling unit required to provide mobility features complying with 809.2 through 809.4 shall comply with 409 and with ASME A17.1 (incorporated by reference, see “Referenced Standards” in Chapter 1). They shall be passenger elevators as classified by ASME A17.1. Elevator operation shall be automatic.

409.2 Call Buttons.

Call buttons shall be ¾ inch (19 mm) minimum in the smallest dimension and shall comply with 309.

409.3 Elevator Doors.

Hoistway doors, car doors, and car gates shall comply with 409.3 and 404.

EXCEPTION: Doors shall not be required to comply with the maneuvering clearance requirements in 404.2.4.1 for approaches to the push side of swinging doors.

409.3.1 Power Operation.

Elevator car and hoistway doors and gates shall be power operated and shall comply with ANSI/BHMA A156.19 (1997 or 2002 edition) (incorporated by reference, see “Referenced Standards” in Chapter 1). Power operated doors and gates shall remain open for 20 seconds minimum when activated.

EXCEPTION: In elevator cars with more than one opening, hoistway doors and gates shall be permitted to be of the manual-open, self-close type.

409.3.2 Location.

Elevator car doors or gates shall be positioned at the narrow end of the clear floor spaces required by 409.4.1.

409.4 Elevator Cars.

Private residence elevator cars shall comply with 409.4.

409.4.1 Inside Dimensions of Elevator Cars.

Elevator cars shall provide a clear floor space of 36 inches (915 mm) minimum by 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum and shall comply with 305.

409.4.2 Floor Surfaces.

Floor surfaces in elevator cars shall comply with 302 and 303.

409.4.3 Platform to Hoistway Clearance.

The clearance between the car platform and the edge of any landing sill shall be 1½ inch (38 mm) maximum.

409.4.4 Leveling.

Each car shall automatically stop at a floor landing within a tolerance of ½ inch (13 mm) under rated loading to zero loading conditions.

409.4.5 Illumination Levels.

Elevator car illumination shall comply with 407.4.5.

409.4.6 Car Controls.

Elevator car control buttons shall comply with 409.4.6, 309.3, 309.4, and shall be raised or flush.

409.4.6.1 Size.

Control buttons shall be 3/4 inch (19 mm) minimum in their smallest dimension.

409.4.6.2 Location.

Control panels shall be on a side wall, 12 inches (305 mm) minimum from any adjacent wall.

A plan view shows an elevator with an out-swinging hoistway door.  The control panel is shown on the car side wall 12 inches (305 mm) minimum from the front.

Figure 409.4.6.2 Location of Private Residence Elevator Control Panel

409.4.7 Emergency Communications.

Emergency two-way communication systems shall comply with 409.4.7.

409.4.7.1 Type.

A telephone and emergency signal device shall be provided in the car.

409.4.7.2 Operable Parts.

The telephone and emergency signaling device shall comply with 309.3 and 309.4.

409.4.7.3 Compartment.

If the telephone or device is in a closed compartment, the compartment door hardware shall comply with 309.

409.4.7.4 Cord.

The telephone cord shall be 29 inches (735 mm) long minimum.

410.1 General.

Platform lifts shall comply with ASME A18.1 (1999 edition or 2003 edition) (incorporated by reference, see “Referenced Standards” in Chapter 1). Platform lifts shall not be attendant-operated and shall provide unassisted entry and exit from the lift. [S.H. not determined]

Advisory 410.1 General. Inclined stairway chairlifts and inclined and vertical platform lifts are available for short-distance vertical transportation. Because an accessible route requires an 80 inch (2030 mm) vertical clearance, care should be taken in selecting lifts as they may not be equally suitable for use by people using wheelchairs and people standing. If a lift does not provide 80 inch (2030 mm) vertical clearance, it cannot be considered part of an accessible route in new construction. The ADA and other Federal civil rights laws require that accessible features be maintained in working order so that they are accessible to and usable by those people they are intended to benefit. Building owners are reminded that the ASME A18 Safety Standard for Platform Lifts and Stairway Chairlifts requires routine maintenance and inspections. Isolated or temporary interruptions in service due to maintenance or repairs may be unavoidable; however, failure to take prompt action to effect repairs could constitute a violation of Federal laws and these requirements.

410.2 Floor Surfaces.

Floor surfaces in platform lifts shall comply with 302 and 303.

410.3 Clear Floor Space.

Clear floor space in platform lifts shall comply with 305.

410.4 Platform to Runway Clearance.

The clearance between the platform sill and the edge of any runway landing shall be 1¼ inch (32 mm) maximum.

410.5 Operable Parts.

Controls for platform lifts shall comply with 309.

410.6 Doors and Gates.

Platform lifts shall have low-energy power-operated doors or gates complying with 404.3. Doors shall remain open for 20 seconds minimum. End doors and gates shall provide a clear width 32 inches (815 mm) minimum. Side doors and gates shall provide a clear width 42 inches (1065 mm) minimum.

EXCEPTION: Platform lifts serving two landings maximum and having doors or gates on opposite sides shall be permitted to have self-closing manual doors or gates.

A rectangular lift platform is shown in plan view with an end door 32 inches (815 mm) minimum, and a side door 42 inches (1065 mm) minimum.

Figure 410.6 Platform Lift Doors and Gates

501.1 Scope.

The provisions of Chapter 5 shall apply where required by Chapter 2 or where referenced by a requirement in this document.

502.1 General.

Car and van parking spaces shall comply with 502. Where parking spaces are marked with lines, width measurements of parking spaces and access aisles shall be made from the centerline of the markings.

EXCEPTION: Where parking spaces or access aisles are not adjacent to another parking space or access aisle, measurements shall be permitted to include the full width of the line defining the parking space or access aisle.

502.2 Vehicle Spaces.

Car parking spaces shall be 96 inches (2440 mm) wide minimum and van parking spaces shall be 132 inches (3350 mm) wide minimum, shall be marked to define the width, and shall have an adjacent access aisle complying with 502.3.

EXCEPTION: Van parking spaces shall be permitted to be 96 inches (2440 mm) wide minimum where the access aisle is 96 inches (2440 mm) wide minimum.

Two marked parking spaces are shown in plan view.  The car space is 96 inches (2440 mm) wide minimum and the van space is 132 inches (3350 mm) wide minimum, with an access aisle between them.

Figure 502.2 Vehicle Parking Spaces

502.3 Access Aisle.

Access aisles serving parking spaces shall comply with 502.3. Access aisles shall adjoin an accessible route. Two parking spaces shall be permitted to share a common access aisle.

Advisory 502.3 Access Aisle. Accessible routes must connect parking spaces to accessible entrances. In parking facilities where the accessible route must cross vehicular traffic lanes, marked crossings enhance pedestrian safety, particularly for people using wheelchairs and other mobility aids. Where possible, it is preferable that the accessible route not pass behind parked vehicles.

A van and a car parking space are shown in plan view sharing an access aisle.  The access aisle is shown to be 60 inches (1525 mm) wide minimum and as long as the parking space.  The entire length of the aisle area is to be marked.

Figure 502.3 Parking Space Access Aisle

502.3.1 Width.

Access aisles serving car and van parking spaces shall be 60 inches (1525 mm) wide minimum.

502.3.2 Length.

Access aisles shall extend the full length of the parking spaces they serve.

502.3.3 Marking.

Access aisles shall be marked so as to discourage parking in them.

Advisory 502.3.3 Marking. The method and color of marking are not specified by these requirements but may be addressed by State or local laws or regulations. Because these requirements permit the van access aisle to be as wide as a parking space, it is important that the aisle be clearly marked.

502.3.4 Location.

Access aisles shall not overlap the vehicular way. Access aisles shall be permitted to be placed on either side of the parking space except for angled van parking spaces which shall have access aisles located on the passenger side of the parking spaces.

Advisory 502.3.4 Location. Wheelchair lifts typically are installed on the passenger side of vans. Many drivers, especially those who operate vans, find it more difficult to back into parking spaces than to back out into comparatively unrestricted vehicular lanes. For this reason, where a van and car share an access aisle, consider locating the van space so that the access aisle is on the passenger side of the van space.

502.4 Floor or Ground Surfaces.

Parking spaces and access aisles serving them shall comply with 302. Access aisles shall be at the same level as the parking spaces they serve. Changes in level are not permitted. [S.H. 4.6.3]

EXCEPTION: Slopes not steeper than 1:48 shall be permitted.

Advisory 502.4 Floor or Ground Surfaces. Access aisles are required to be nearly level in all directions to provide a surface for wheelchair transfer to and from vehicles. The exception allows sufficient slope for drainage. Built-up curb ramps are not permitted to project into access aisles and parking spaces because they would create slopes greater than 1:48.

502.5 Vertical Clearance.

Parking spaces for vans and access aisles and vehicular routes serving them shall provide a vertical clearance of 98 inches (2490 mm) minimum. [S.H. 4.6.5]

Advisory 502.5 Vertical Clearance. Signs provided at entrances to parking facilities informing drivers of clearances and the location of van accessible parking spaces can provide useful customer assistance.

502.6 Identification.

Parking space identification signs shall include the International Symbol of Accessibility complying with 703.7.2.1. Signs identifying van parking spaces shall contain the designation “van accessible.” Signs shall be 60 inches (1525 mm) minimum above the finish floor or ground surface measured to the bottom of the sign. [S.H. 4.6.4]

Advisory 502.6 Identification. The required “van accessible” designation is intended to be informative, not restrictive, in identifying those spaces that are better suited for van use. Enforcement of motor vehicle laws, including parking privileges, is a local matter.

502.7 Relationship to Accessible Routes.

Parking spaces and access aisles shall be designed so that cars and vans, when parked, cannot obstruct the required clear width of adjacent accessible routes.

Advisory 502.7 Relationship to Accessible Routes. Wheel stops are an effective way to prevent vehicle overhangs from reducing the clear width of accessible routes.

503.1 General.

Passenger loading zones shall comply with 503.

503.2 Vehicle Pull-Up Space.

Passenger loading zones shall provide a vehicular pull-up space 96 inches (2440 mm) wide minimum and 20 feet (6100 mm) long minimum. [S.H. 4.6.6]

503.3 Access Aisle.

Passenger loading zones shall provide access aisles complying with 503 adjacent to the vehicle pull-up space. Access aisles shall adjoin an accessible route and shall not overlap the vehicular way. [S.H. 4.6.6]

An access aisle at a passenger loading zone is shown to be the full length of the vehicle pull-up space and 60 inches (1525 mm) wide minimum. The aisle area is to be marked.

Figure 503.3 Passenger Loading Zone Access Aisle

503.3.1 Width.

Access aisles serving vehicle pull-up spaces shall be 60 inches (1525 mm) wide minimum.

503.3.2 Length.

Access aisles shall extend the full length of the vehicle pull-up spaces they serve.

503.3.3 Marking.

Access aisles shall be marked so as to discourage parking in them.

503.4 Floor and Ground Surfaces.

Vehicle pull-up spaces and access aisles serving them shall comply with 302. Access aisles shall be at the same level as the vehicle pull-up space they serve. Changes in level are not permitted. [S.H. 4.6.6]

EXCEPTION: Slopes not steeper than 1:48 shall be permitted.

503.5 Vertical Clearance.

Vehicle pull-up spaces, access aisles serving them, and a vehicular route from an entrance to the passenger loading zone, and from the passenger loading zone to a vehicular exit shall provide a vertical clearance of 114 inches (2895 mm) minimum.

504.1 General.

Stairs shall comply with 504.

504.2 Treads and Risers.

All steps on a flight of stairs shall have uniform riser heights and uniform tread depths. Risers shall be 4 inches (100 mm) high minimum and 7 inches (180 mm) high maximum. Treads shall be 11 inches (280 mm) deep minimum. [S.H. 4.9.2]

504.3 Open Risers.

Open risers are not permitted.

504.4 Tread Surface.

Stair treads shall comply with 302. Changes in level are not permitted.

EXCEPTION: Treads shall be permitted to have a slope not steeper than 1:48.

Advisory 504.4 Tread Surface. Consider providing visual contrast on tread nosings, or at the leading edges of treads without nosings, so that stair treads are more visible for people with low vision.

504.5 Nosings.

The radius of curvature at the leading edge of the tread shall be ½ inch (13 mm) maximum. Nosings that project beyond risers shall have the underside of the leading edge curved or beveled. Risers shall be permitted to slope under the tread at an angle of 30 degrees maximum from vertical. The permitted projection of the nosing shall extend 1½ inches (38 mm) maximum over the tread below.

Figure (a) shows vertical risers where the radius of curvature of the leading edge of each tread is 2 inch (13 mm) maximum.
Figure (b) shows angled risers. Risers can slope at an angle of 30 degrees maximum from the vertical.
Figures (c) and (d) show curved and beveled nosings, respectively. The maximum projection of the nosing is 1 2 inches (38 mm) beyond the rear of the tread below.
Figures (c) and (d) show curved and beveled nosings, respectively. The maximum projection of the nosing is 1 2 inches (38 mm) beyond the rear of the tread below.

Figure 504.5 Stair Nosings

 

504.6 Handrails.

Stairs shall have handrails complying with 505.

504.7 Wet Conditions.

Stair treads and landings subject to wet conditions shall be designed to prevent the accumulation of water.

505.1 General.

Handrails provided along walking surfaces complying with 403, required at ramps complying with 405, and required at stairs complying with 504 shall comply with 505.

Advisory 505.1 General. Handrails are required on ramp runs with a rise greater than 6 inches (150 mm) (see 405.8) and on certain stairways (see 504). Handrails are not required on walking surfaces with running slopes less than 1:20. However, handrails are required to comply with 505 when they are provided on walking surfaces with running slopes less than 1:20 (see 403.6). Sections 505.2, 505.3, and 505.10 do not apply to handrails provided on walking surfaces with running slopes less than 1:20 as these sections only reference requirements for ramps and stairs.

505.2 Where Required.

Handrails shall be provided on both sides of stairs and ramps.

EXCEPTION: In assembly areas, handrails shall not be required on both sides of aisle ramps where a handrail is provided at either side or within the aisle width. [S.H. 4.8.5]

505.3 Continuity.

Handrails shall be continuous within the full length of each stair flight or ramp run. Inside handrails on switchback or dogleg stairs and ramps shall be continuous between flights or runs.

EXCEPTION: In assembly areas, handrails on ramps shall not be required to be continuous in aisles serving seating.

505.4 Height.

Top of gripping surfaces of handrails shall be 34 inches (865 mm) minimum and 38 inches (965 mm) maximum vertically above walking surfaces, stair nosings, and ramp surfaces. Handrails shall be at a consistent height above walking surfaces, stair nosings, and ramp surfaces.

Advisory 505.4 Height. The requirements for stair and ramp handrails in this document are for adults. When children are the principal users in a building or facility (e.g., elementary schools), a second set of handrails at an appropriate height can assist them and aid in preventing accidents. A maximum height of 28 inches (710 mm) measured to the top of the gripping surface from the ramp surface or stair nosing is recommended for handrails designed for children. Sufficient vertical clearance between upper and lower handrails, 9 inches (230 mm) minimum, should be provided to help prevent entrapment.

Figure (a) shows stairs with the top gripping surface of a handrail 34 to 38 inches (865 to 965 mm) above stair nosings.
Figures (b) and (c) show ramps and walking surfaces, respectively.  The top gripping surface of a handrail is 34 to 38 inches (865 to 965 mm) above the surface.
Figures (b) and (c) show ramps and walking surfaces, respectively.  The top gripping surface of a handrail is 34 to 38 inches (865 to 965 mm) above the surface.

Figure 505.4 Handrail Height

505.5 Clearance.

Clearance between handrail gripping surfaces and adjacent surfaces shall be 1½ inches (38 mm) minimum.

The clearance between the handrail and wall is shown to be 1 1/ 2 inches (38 mm) minimum.

Figure 505.5 Handrail Clearance

505.6 Gripping Surface.

Handrail gripping surfaces shall be continuous along their length and shall not be obstructed along their tops or sides. The bottoms of handrail gripping surfaces shall not be obstructed for more than 20 percent of their length. Where provided, horizontal projections shall occur 1½ inches (38 mm) minimum below the bottom of the handrail gripping surface. [S.H. 4.8.5(4)], [S.H. 4.9.4(4)]

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Where handrails are provided along walking surfaces with slopes not steeper than 1:20, the bottoms of handrail gripping surfaces shall be permitted to be obstructed along their entire length where they are integral to crash rails or bumper guards.

2. The distance between horizontal projections and the bottom of the gripping surface shall be permitted to be reduced by 1/8 inch (3.2 mm) for each ½ inch (13 mm) of additional handrail perimeter dimension that exceeds 4 inches (100 mm).

Advisory 505.6 Gripping Surface. People with disabilities, older people, and others benefit from continuous gripping surfaces that permit users to reach the fingers outward or downward to grasp the handrail, particularly as the user senses a loss of equilibrium or begins to fall.

A handrail with brackets attached to the bottom surface is shown in cross section.  The horizontal projection of the bracket from the wall is 1 1/2 inches (38 mm) below the bottom of the handrail.

Figure 505.6 Horizontal Projections Below Gripping Surface

505.7 Cross Section.

Handrail gripping surfaces shall have a cross section complying with 505.7.1 or 505.7.2.

505.7.1 Circular Cross Section.

Handrail gripping surfaces with a circular cross section shall have an outside diameter of 1¼ inches (32 mm) minimum and 2 inches (51 mm) maximum.

505.7.2 Non-Circular Cross Sections.

Handrail gripping surfaces with a non-circular cross section shall have a perimeter dimension of 4 inches (100 mm) minimum and 6¼ inches (160 mm) maximum, and a cross-section dimension of 2¼ inches (57 mm) maximum.  [S.H. 4.26.2]

Figure (a) shows a handrail with an approximately square cross section and figure (c) shows an elliptical cross section.  The largest cross section dimension is 2 1/4 inches (57 mm) maximum.  The perimeter dimension must be 4 to 6 1/4 inches (100 to 160 mm).

Figure 505.7.2 Handrail Non-Circular Cross Section

505.8 Surfaces.

Handrail gripping surfaces and any surfaces adjacent to them shall be free of sharp or abrasive elements and shall have rounded edges.

505.9 Fittings.

Handrails shall not rotate within their fittings.

505.10 Handrail Extensions.

Handrail gripping surfaces shall extend beyond and in the same direction of stair flights and ramp runs in accordance with 505.10.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Extensions shall not be required for continuous handrails at the inside turn of switchback or dogleg stairs and ramps.

2. In assembly areas, extensions shall not be required for ramp handrails in aisles serving seating where the handrails are discontinuous to provide access to seating and to permit crossovers within aisles.

3. In alterations, full extensions of handrails shall not be required where such extensions would be hazardous due to plan configuration.

505.10.1 Top and Bottom Extension at Ramps.

Ramp handrails shall extend horizontally above the landing for 12 inches (305 mm) minimum beyond the top and bottom of ramp runs. Extensions shall return to a wall, guard, or the landing surface, or shall be continuous to the handrail of an adjacent ramp run. [S.H. 4.8.5(6)], [S.H. Fig. 17]

Ramp handrails at the top and bottom are shown to extend horizontally above the landing 12 inches (305 mm) minimum from the ramp run.  The extensions return to posts.

Figure 505.10.1 Top and Bottom Handrail Extension at Ramps

505.10.2 Top Extension at Stairs.

At the top of a stair flight, handrails shall extend horizontally above the landing for 12 inches (305 mm) minimum beginning directly above the first riser nosing. Extensions shall return to a wall, guard, or the landing surface, or shall be continuous to the handrail of an adjacent stair flight. [S.H. 4.9.4(6)], [S.H. Fig. 19(d)]

The handrail extends horizontally above the landing for 12 inches (305 mm) minimum beginning directly above the first riser nosing.

Figure 505.10.2 Top Handrail Extension at Stairs

505.10.3 Bottom Extension at Stairs.

At the bottom of a stair flight, handrails shall extend at the slope of the stair flight for a horizontal distance at least equal to one tread depth beyond the last riser nosing. Extension shall return to a wall, guard, or the landing surface, or shall be continuous to the handrail of an adjacent stair flight.

A handrail is shown to extend at the slope of the stair flight for a horizontal distance equal to one tread depth beyond the last riser nosing.

Figure 505.10.3 Bottom Handrail Extension at Stairs

601.1 Scope.

The provisions of Chapter 6 shall apply where required by Chapter 2 or where referenced by a requirement in this document.

602.1 General.

Drinking fountains shall comply with 307 and 602.

602.2 Clear Floor Space.

Units shall have a clear floor or ground space complying with 305 positioned for a forward approach and centered on the unit. Knee and toe clearance complying with 306 shall be provided. [S.H. 4.15.5]

EXCEPTION: A parallel approach complying with 305 shall be permitted at units for children's use where the spout is 30 inches (760 mm) maximum above the finish floor or ground and is 3½ inches (90 mm) maximum from the front edge of the unit, including bumpers.

602.3 Operable Parts.

Operable parts shall comply with 309.

602.4 Spout Height.

Spout outlets shall be 36 inches (915 mm) maximum above the finish floor or ground.

602.5 Spout Location.

The spout shall be located 15 inches (380 mm) minimum from the vertical support and 5 inches (125 mm) maximum from the front edge of the unit, including bumpers. [S.H. 4.15.3]

In plan view, the spout is shown to be 15 inches (380 mm) minimum from the vertical support and 5 inches (125 mm) from the front edge of the unit.

Figure 602.5 Drinking Fountain Spout Location

602.6 Water Flow.

The spout shall provide a flow of water 4 inches (100 mm) high minimum and shall be located 5 inches (125 mm) maximum from the front of the unit. The angle of the water stream shall be measured horizontally relative to the front face of the unit. Where spouts are located less than 3 inches (75 mm) of the front of the unit, the angle of the water stream shall be 30 degrees maximum. Where spouts are located between 3 inches (75 mm) and 5 inches (125 mm) maximum from the front of the unit, the angle of the water stream shall be 15 degrees maximum. [S.H. 4.15.3]

Advisory 602.6 Water Flow. The purpose of requiring the drinking fountain spout to produce a flow of water 4 inches (100 mm) high minimum is so that a cup can be inserted under the flow of water to provide a drink of water for an individual who, because of a disability, would otherwise be incapable of using the drinking fountain.

602.7 Drinking Fountains for Standing Persons.

Spout outlets of drinking fountains for standing persons shall be 38 inches (965 mm) minimum and 43 inches (1090 mm) maximum above the finish floor or ground. [S.H. 4.1.3(10)(a)]

603.1 General.

Toilet and bathing rooms shall comply with 603.

603.2 Clearances.

Clearances shall comply with 603.2.

603.2.1 Turning Space.

Turning space complying with 304 shall be provided within the room.

603.2.2 Overlap.

Required clear floor spaces, clearance at fixtures, and turning space shall be permitted to overlap.

603.2.3 Door Swing.

Doors shall not swing into the clear floor space or clearance required for any fixture. Doors shall be permitted to swing into the required turning space.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Doors to a toilet room or bathing room for a single occupant accessed only through a private office and not for common use or public use shall be permitted to swing into the clear floor space or clearance provided the swing of the door can be reversed to comply with 603.2.3.

2. Where the toilet room or bathing room is for individual use and a clear floor space complying with 305.3 is provided within the room beyond the arc of the door swing, doors shall be permitted to swing into the clear floor space or clearance required for any fixture.

Advisory 603.2.3 Door Swing Exception 1. At the time the door is installed, and if the door swing is reversed in the future, the door must meet all the requirements specified in 404. Additionally, the door swing cannot reduce the required width of an accessible route. Also, avoid violating other building or life safety codes when the door swing is reversed.

603.3 Mirrors.

Mirrors located above lavatories or countertops shall be installed with the bottom edge of the reflecting surface 40 inches (1015 mm) maximum above the finish floor or ground. Mirrors not located above lavatories or countertops shall be installed with the bottom edge of the reflecting surface 35 inches (890 mm) maximum above the finish floor or ground. [S.H. 4.19.6]

Advisory 603.3 Mirrors. A single full-length mirror can accommodate a greater number of people, including children. In order for mirrors to be usable by people who are ambulatory and people who use wheelchairs, the top edge of mirrors should be 74 inches (1880 mm) minimum from the floor or ground.

603.4 Coat Hooks and Shelves.

Coat hooks shall be located within one of the reach ranges specified in 308. Shelves shall be located 40 inches (1015 mm) minimum and 48 inches (1220 mm) maximum above the finish floor. [S.H. 4.25.3]

604.1 General.

Water closets and toilet compartments shall comply with 604.2 through 604.8.

EXCEPTION: Water closets and toilet compartments for children's use shall be permitted to comply with 604.9.

604.2 Location.

The water closet shall be positioned with a wall or partition to the rear and to one side. The centerline of the water closet shall be 16 inches (405 mm) minimum to 18 inches (455 mm) maximum from the side wall or partition, except that the water closet shall be 17 inches (430 mm) minimum and 19 inches (485 mm) maximum from the side wall or partition in the ambulatory accessible toilet compartment specified in 604.8.2. Water closets shall be arranged for a left-hand or right-hand approach.

ETA Editor’s Note:

The 1991 ADA Standards allowed construction tolerances from an 18” absolute dimension.  This might allow a little more than the 18” maximum under the 2010 ADA Standards to be safe harbored.  

Figure (a) shows a wheelchair accessible water closet, with space on one side. The water closet centerline is shown to be 16 to 18 inches (405 to 455 mm) from the side wall.
Figure (b) shows an ambulatory accessible water closet, with stall walls and grab bars on both sides. The water closet centerline is shown to be 17 to 19 inches (430 to 485 mm) from the side wall.

Figure 604.2 Water Closet Location

604.3 Clearance.

Clearances around water closets and in toilet compartments shall comply with 604.3.

604.3.1 Size.

Clearance around a water closet shall be 60 inches (1525 mm) minimum measured perpendicular from the side wall and 56 inches (1420 mm) minimum measured perpendicular from the rear wall. [S.H. 4.16.2]

The clearance around a water closet is shown in plan view to be 60 inches (1525 mm) wide minimum and 56 inches (1420 mm) deep minimum.

Figure 604.3.1 Size of Clearance at Water Closets

604.3.2 Overlap.

The required clearance around the water closet shall be permitted to overlap the water closet, associated grab bars, dispensers, sanitary napkin disposal units, coat hooks, shelves, accessible routes, clear floor space and clearances required at other fixtures, and the turning space. No other fixtures or obstructions shall be located within the required water closet clearance. [S.H. 4.16.2]

EXCEPTION: In residential dwelling units, a lavatory complying with 606 shall be permitted on the rear wall 18 inches (455 mm) minimum from the water closet centerline where the clearance at the water closet is 66 inches (1675 mm) minimum measured perpendicular from the rear wall.

Advisory 604.3.2 Overlap. When the door to the toilet room is placed directly in front of the water closet, the water closet cannot overlap the required maneuvering clearance for the door inside the room.

The clearance around a water closet is shown in plan view to be 60 inches (1525 mm) wide minimum and 66 inches (1675 mm) deep minimum with a lavatory permitted on the real wall if the distance between the lavatory nearest edge and the water closet center line is 18 inches (455 mm) minimum.

Figure 604.3.2 (Exception) Overlap of Water Closet Clearance in Residential Dwelling Units

604.4 Seats.

The seat height of a water closet above the finish floor shall be 17 inches (430 mm) minimum and 19 inches (485 mm) maximum measured to the top of the seat. Seats shall not be sprung to return to a lifted position.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. A water closet in a toilet room for a single occupant accessed only through a private office and not for common use or public use shall not be required to comply with 604.4.

2. In residential dwelling units, the height of water closets shall be permitted to be 15 inches (380 mm) minimum and 19 inches (485 mm) maximum above the finish floor measured to the top of the seat.

604.5 Grab Bars.

Grab bars for water closets shall comply with 609. Grab bars shall be provided on the side wall closest to the water closet and on the rear wall.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Grab bars shall not be required to be installed in a toilet room for a single occupant accessed only through a private office and not for common use or public use provided that reinforcement has been installed in walls and located so as to permit the installation of grab bars complying with 604.5.

2. In residential dwelling units, grab bars shall not be required to be installed in toilet or bathrooms provided that reinforcement has been installed in walls and located so as to permit the installation of grab bars complying with 604.5.

3. In detention or correction facilities, grab bars shall not be required to be installed in housing or holding cells that are specially designed without protrusions for purposes of suicide prevention.

Advisory 604.5 Grab Bars Exception 2. Reinforcement must be sufficient to permit the installation of rear and side wall grab bars that fully meet all accessibility requirements including, but not limited to, required length, installation height, and structural strength.
604.5.1 Side Wall.

The side wall grab bar shall be 42 inches (1065 mm) long minimum, located 12 inches (305 mm) maximum from the rear wall and extending 54 inches (1370 mm) minimum from the rear wall. [S.H. 4.17.6]

Elevation drawing shows the side wall grab bar to be 42 inches (1065) long minimum, located 12 inches (305 mm) maximum from the rear wall and extending 54 inches (1370 mm) minimum from the rear wall.

Figure 604.5.1 Side Wall Grab Bar at Water Closets

604.5.2 Rear Wall.

The rear wall grab bar shall be 36 inches (915 mm) long minimum and extend from the centerline of the water closet 12 inches (305 mm) minimum on one side and 24 inches (610 mm) minimum on the other side. [S.H. 4.16.4], [S.H. 4.17.6]

EXCEPTIONS: 1. The rear grab bar shall be permitted to be 24 inches (610 mm) long minimum, centered on the water closet, where wall space does not permit a length of 36 inches (915 mm) minimum due to the location of a recessed fixture adjacent to the water closet.

2. Where an administrative authority requires flush controls for flush valves to be located in a position that conflicts with the location of the rear grab bar, then the rear grab bar shall be permitted to be split or shifted to the open side of the toilet area.

Elevation drawing shows the rear grab bar 36 inches (915 mm) long minimum, positioned so that 24 inches (610 mm) minimum extends toward the open transfer side and 12 inches (305 mm) minimum extends toward the side wall.

Figure 604.5.2 Rear Wall Grab Bar at Water Closets

604.6 Flush Controls.

Flush controls shall be hand operated or automatic. Hand operated flush controls shall comply with 309. Flush controls shall be located on the open side of the water closet except in ambulatory accessible compartments complying with 604.8.2.

Advisory 604.6 Flush Controls. If plumbing valves are located directly behind the toilet seat, flush valves and related plumbing can cause injury or imbalance when a person leans back against them. To prevent causing injury or imbalance, the plumbing can be located behind walls or to the side of the toilet; or if approved by the local authority having jurisdiction, provide a toilet seat lid.
604.7 Dispensers.

Toilet paper dispensers shall comply with 309.4 and shall be 7 inches (180 mm) minimum and 9 inches (230 mm) maximum in front of the water closet measured to the centerline of the dispenser. The outlet of the dispenser shall be 15 inches (380 mm) minimum and 48 inches (1220 mm) maximum above the finish floor and shall not be located behind grab bars. Dispensers shall not be of a type that controls delivery or that does not allow continuous paper flow. [S.H. 4.16.6]

Advisory 604.7 Dispensers. If toilet paper dispensers are installed above the side wall grab bar, the outlet of the toilet paper dispenser must be 48 inches (1220 mm) maximum above the finish floor and the top of the gripping surface of the grab bar must be 33 inches (840 mm) minimum and 36 inches (915 mm) maximum above the finish floor.
Elevation drawing shows the centerline of the toilet paper dispenser to be 7 to 9 inches (180 to 230 mm) in front of the water closet.  The outlet of the dispenser is 15 inches (380 mm) minimum and 48 inches (1220 mm) maximum above the floor.

Figure 604.7 Dispenser Outlet Location

604.8 Toilet Compartments.

Wheelchair accessible toilet compartments shall meet the requirements of 604.8.1 and 604.8.3. Compartments containing more than one plumbing fixture shall comply with 603. Ambulatory accessible compartments shall comply with 604.8.2 and 604.8.3.

604.8.1 Wheelchair Accessible Compartments.

Wheelchair accessible compartments shall comply with 604.8.1.

604.8.1.1 Size.

Wheelchair accessible compartments shall be 60 inches (1525 mm) wide minimum measured perpendicular to the side wall, and 56 inches (1420 mm) deep minimum for wall hung water closets and 59 inches (1500 mm) deep minimum for floor mounted water closets measured perpendicular to the rear wall. Wheelchair accessible compartments for children’s use shall be 60 inches (1525 mm) wide minimum measured perpendicular to the side wall, and 59 inches (1500 mm) deep minimum for wall hung and floor mounted water closets measured perpendicular to the rear wall.

Advisory 604.8.1.1 Size. The minimum space required in toilet compartments is provided so that a person using a wheelchair can maneuver into position at the water closet. This space cannot be obstructed by baby changing tables or other fixtures or conveniences, except as specified at 604.3.2 (Overlap). If toilet compartments are to be used to house fixtures other than those associated with the water closet, they must be designed to exceed the minimum space requirements. Convenience fixtures such as baby changing tables must also be accessible to people with disabilities as well as to other users. Toilet compartments that are designed to meet, and not exceed, the minimum space requirements may not provide adequate space for maneuvering into position at a baby changing table.
Figure (a) is a plan view of an adult wall hung water closet.  The compartment is shown to be 60 inches (1525 mm) wide minimum and 56 inches (1420 mm) deep minimum.
Figure (b) is a plan view of an adult floor mounted and a children’s water closet.  The compartment is shown to be 60 inches (1525 mm) wide minimum and 59 inches (1500 mm) deep minimum.

Figure 604.8.1.1 Size of Wheelchair Accessible Toilet Compartment

604.8.1.2 Doors.

Toilet compartment doors, including door hardware, shall comply with 404 except that if the approach is to the latch side of the compartment door, clearance between the door side of the compartment and any obstruction shall be 42 inches (1065 mm) minimum. Doors shall be located in the front partition or in the side wall or partition farthest from the water closet. Where located in the front partition, the door opening shall be 4 inches (100 mm) maximum from the side wall or partition farthest from the water closet. Where located in the side wall or partition, the door opening shall be 4 inches (100 mm) maximum from the front partition. The door shall be self-closing. A door pull complying with 404.2.7 shall be placed on both sides of the door near the latch. Toilet compartment doors shall not swing into the minimum required compartment area. [S.H. 4.17.5]

The compartment door is hinged 4 inches (100 mm) maximum from the side wall or partition farthest from the water closet so that the door opens on to the open transfer space.  The minimum clearance between the door side of the stall and any obstruction is 42 inches (1065 mm).

Figure 604.8.1.2 Wheelchair Accessible Toilet Compartment Doors

604.8.1.3 Approach.

Compartments shall be arranged for left-hand or right-hand approach to the water closet.

604.8.1.4 Toe Clearance.

The front partition and at least one side partition shall provide a toe clearance of 9 inches (230 mm) minimum above the finish floor and 6 inches (150 mm) deep minimum beyond the compartment-side face of the partition, exclusive of partition support members. Compartments for children’s use shall provide a toe clearance of 12 inches (305 mm) minimum above the finish floor. [S.H. 4.17.4]

EXCEPTION: Toe clearance at the front partition is not required in a compartment greater than 62 inches (1575 mm) deep with a wall-hung water closet or 65 inches (1650 mm) deep with a floor-mounted water closet. Toe clearance at the side partition is not required in a compartment greater than 66 inches (1675 mm) wide. Toe clearance at the front partition is not required in a compartment for children’s use that is greater than 65 inches (1650 mm) deep.[S.H. 4.17.4]

Figure (a) is an elevation drawing showing toe clearance under a toilet compartment partition.  Toe clearance is 9 inches (230 mm) high minimum and 6 inches (150 mm) deep minimum beyond the compartment-side face of the partition.
Figure (b) is an elevation drawing for a children’s toilet compartment.  Toe clearance is 12 inches (305 mm) high minimum and 6 inches (150 mm) deep minimum beyond the compartment-side face of the partition.
Figure (c) is a plan view showing toe clearance under the front partition and one side partition, 6 inches (150 mm) deep minimum.

Figure 604.8.1.4 Wheelchair Accessible Toilet Compartment Toe Clearance

604.8.1.5 Grab Bars.

Grab bars shall comply with 609. A side-wall grab bar complying with 604.5.1 shall be provided and shall be located on the wall closest to the water closet. In addition, a rear-wall grab bar complying with 604.5.2 shall be provided.

604.8.2 Ambulatory Accessible Compartments.

Ambulatory accessible compartments shall comply with 604.8.2.

The compartment is 60 inches (1525 mm) deep minimum and 35 to 37 inches (890 to 940 mm) wide, with grab bars on both sides. The minimum clearance between the door side of the stall and any obstruction is 42 inches (1065 mm).

Figure 604.8.2 Ambulatory Accessible Toilet Compartment

604.8.2.1 Size.

Ambulatory accessible compartments shall have a depth of 60 inches (1525 mm) minimum and a width of 35 inches (890 mm) minimum and 37 inches (940 mm) maximum.

604.8.2.2 Doors.

Toilet compartment doors, including door hardware, shall comply with 404, except that if the approach is to the latch side of the compartment door, clearance between the door side of the compartment and any obstruction shall be 42 inches (1065 mm) minimum. The door shall be self-closing. A door pull complying with 404.2.7 shall be placed on both sides of the door near the latch. Toilet compartment doors shall not swing into the minimum required compartment area. [S.H. 4.17.5]

604.8.2.3 Grab Bars.

Grab bars shall comply with 609. A side-wall grab bar complying with 604.5.1 shall be provided on both sides of the compartment.

604.8.3 Coat Hooks and Shelves.

Coat hooks shall be located within one of the reach ranges specified in 308. Shelves shall be located 40 inches (1015 mm) minimum and 48 inches (1220 mm) maximum above the finish floor. [S.H. 4.25.3]

604.9 Water Closets and Toilet Compartments for Children's Use.

Water closets and toilet compartments for children's use shall comply with 604.9.

Advisory 604.9 Water Closets and Toilet Compartments for Children's Use. The requirements in 604.9 are to be followed where the exception for children's water closets in 604.1 is used. The following table provides additional guidance in applying the specifications for water closets for children according to the age group served and reflects the differences in the size, stature, and reach ranges of children ages 3 through 12. The specifications chosen should correspond to the age of the primary user group. The specifications of one age group should be applied consistently in the installation of a water closet and related elements.

Advisory Specifications for Water Closets Serving Children Ages 3 through 12

  Ages 3 and 4 Ages 5 through 8 Ages 9 through 12
Water Closet Centerline 12 inches (305 mm) 12 to 15 inches (305 to 380 mm) 15 to 18 inches (380 to 455 mm)
Toilet Seat Height 11 to 12 inches (280 to 305 mm) 12 to 15 inches (305 to 380 mm) 15 to 17 inches (380 to 430 mm)
Grab Bar Height 18 to 20 inches (455 to 510 mm) 20 to 25 inches (510 to 635 mm) 25 to 27 inches (635 to 685 mm)
Dispenser Height 14 inches (355 mm) 14 to 17 inches (355 to 430 mm) 17 to 19 inches (430 to 485 mm)
604.9.1 Location.

The water closet shall be located with a wall or partition to the rear and to one side. The centerline of the water closet shall be 12 inches (305 mm) minimum and 18 inches (455 mm) maximum from the side wall or partition, except that the water closet shall be 17 inches (430 mm) minimum and 19 inches (485 mm) maximum from the side wall or partition in the ambulatory accessible toilet compartment specified in 604.8.2. Compartments shall be arranged for left-hand or right-hand approach to the water closet.

604.9.2 Clearance.

Clearance around a water closet shall comply with 604.3.

604.9.3 Height.

The height of water closets shall be 11 inches (280 mm) minimum and 17 inches (430 mm) maximum measured to the top of the seat. Seats shall not be sprung to return to a lifted position.

604.9.4 Grab Bars.

Grab bars for water closets shall comply with 604.5.

604.9.5 Flush Controls.

Flush controls shall be hand operated or automatic. Hand operated flush controls shall comply with 309.2 and 309.4 and shall be installed 36 inches (915 mm) maximum above the finish floor. Flush controls shall be located on the open side of the water closet except in ambulatory accessible compartments complying with 604.8.2.

604.9.6 Dispensers.

Toilet paper dispensers shall comply with 309.4 and shall be 7 inches (180 mm) minimum and 9 inches (230 mm) maximum in front of the water closet measured to the centerline of the dispenser. The outlet of the dispenser shall be 14 inches (355 mm) minimum and 19 inches (485 mm) maximum above the finish floor. There shall be a clearance of 1½ inches (38 mm) minimum below the grab bar. Dispensers shall not be of a type that controls delivery or that does not allow continuous paper flow.

604.9.7 Toilet Compartments.

Toilet compartments shall comply with 604.8.

605.1 General.

Urinals shall comply with 605.

Advisory 605.1 General. Stall-type urinals provide greater accessibility for a broader range of persons, including people of short stature.
605.2 Height and Depth.

Urinals shall be the stall-type or the wall-hung type with the rim 17 inches (430 mm) maximum above the finish floor or ground. Urinals shall be 13½ inches (345 mm) deep minimum measured from the outer face of the urinal rim to the back of the fixture. [S.H. 4.18.2]

Figure (a) is an elevation drawing of a wall hung type having the urinal rim 17 inches (430 mm) maximum above the floor with a minimum depth of 13 1/2 inches (350 mm) measured from the outer face of the rim to the back of the fixture.
Figure (b) is an elevation drawing of a stall (floor) type having a minimum depth of 13 1/2 inches (350 mm) measured from the outer face of the rim to the back of the fixture.

Figure 605.2 Height and Depth of Urinals

605.3 Clear Floor Space.

A clear floor or ground space complying with 305 positioned for forward approach shall be provided. [S.H. 4.18.3]

605.4 Flush Controls.

Flush controls shall be hand operated or automatic. Hand operated flush controls shall comply with 309.

606.1 General.

Lavatories and sinks shall comply with 606.

Advisory 606.1 General. If soap and towel dispensers are provided, they must be located within the reach ranges specified in 308. Locate soap and towel dispensers so that they are conveniently usable by a person at the accessible lavatory.
606.2 Clear Floor Space.

A clear floor space complying with 305, positioned for a forward approach, and knee and toe clearance complying with 306 shall be provided.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. A parallel approach complying with 305 shall be permitted to a kitchen sink in a space where a cook top or conventional range is not provided and to wet bars.

2. A lavatory in a toilet room or bathing facility for a single occupant accessed only through a private office and not for common use or public use shall not be required to provide knee and toe clearance complying with 306.

3. In residential dwelling units, cabinetry shall be permitted under lavatories and kitchen sinks provided that all of the following conditions are met:

(a) the cabinetry can be removed without removal or replacement of the fixture;

(b) the finish floor extends under the cabinetry; and

(c) the walls behind and surrounding the cabinetry are finished.

4. A knee clearance of 24 inches (610 mm) minimum above the finish floor or ground shall be permitted at lavatories and sinks used primarily by children 6 through 12 years where the rim or counter surface is 31 inches (785 mm) maximum above the finish floor or ground.

5. A parallel approach complying with 305 shall be permitted to lavatories and sinks used primarily by children 5 years and younger.

6. The dip of the overflow shall not be considered in determining knee and toe clearances.

7. No more than one bowl of a multi-bowl sink shall be required to provide knee and toe clearance complying with 306.

606.3 Height.

Lavatories and sinks shall be installed with the front of the higher of the rim or counter surface 34 inches (865 mm) maximum above the finish floor or ground.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. A lavatory in a toilet or bathing facility for a single occupant accessed only through a private office and not for common use or public use shall not be required to comply with 606.3.

2. In residential dwelling unit kitchens, sinks that are adjustable to variable heights, 29 inches (735 mm) minimum and 36 inches (915 mm) maximum, shall be permitted where rough-in plumbing permits connections of supply and drain pipes for sinks mounted at the height of 29 inches (735 mm).

606.4 Faucets.

Controls for faucets shall comply with 309. Hand-operated metering faucets shall remain open for 10 seconds minimum.

606.5 Exposed Pipes and Surfaces.

Water supply and drain pipes under lavatories and sinks shall be insulated or otherwise configured to protect against contact. There shall be no sharp or abrasive surfaces under lavatories and sinks. [S.H. 4.19.4], [S.H. 4.24.6]

607.1 General.

Bathtubs shall comply with 607.

607.2 Clearance.

Clearance in front of bathtubs shall extend the length of the bathtub and shall be 30 inches (760 mm) wide minimum. A lavatory complying with 606 shall be permitted at the control end of the clearance. Where a permanent seat is provided at the head end of the bathtub, the clearance shall extend 12 inches (305 mm) minimum beyond the wall at the head end of the bathtub.

Figure (a) shows a bathtub with a removable in-tub seat.  The bathtub has clearance in front 30 inches (760 mm) wide minimum that extends the length of the tub.
Figure (b) shows a bathtub with a permanent seat at the head end (the end opposite the controls).  The tub has clearance in front 30 inches (760 mm) wide minimum that extends the length of the tub plus 12 inches (305 mm) minimum beyond the seat.  Both figures show that a lavatory can be located at the foot end of the tub clearance.

Figure 607.2 Clearance for Bathtubs

607.3 Seat.

A permanent seat at the head end of the bathtub or a removable in-tub seat shall be provided. Seats shall comply with 610.

607.4 Grab Bars.

Grab bars for bathtubs shall comply with 609 and shall be provided in accordance with 607.4.1 or 607.4.2.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Grab bars shall not be required to be installed in a bathtub located in a bathing facility for a single occupant accessed only through a private office and not for common use or public use provided that reinforcement has been installed in walls and located so as to permit the installation of grab bars complying with 607.4.

2. In residential dwelling units, grab bars shall not be required to be installed in bathtubs located in bathing facilities provided that reinforcement has been installed in walls and located so as to permit the installation of grab bars complying with 607.4.

607.4.1 Bathtubs With Permanent Seats.

For bathtubs with permanent seats, grab bars shall be provided in accordance with 607.4.1.

Figure (a) shows an elevation drawing of a tub with a permanent seat and two parallel grab bars on the back wall. The upper grab bar is mounted 33 to 36 inches (840 to 915 mm) above the finish floor. The lower grab bar is mounted 8 to 10 inches (205 to 255 mm) above the tub rim.
 Figure (b) is a plan view. A grab bar on the foot end wall is 24 inches (610 mm) long minimum and is installed at the front edge of the tub. The rear grab bars are mounted 12 inches (305 mm) maximum from the foot end wall and 15 inches (380 mm) maximum from the head end wall.

Figure 607.4.1 Grab Bars for Bathtubs with Permanent Seats

607.4.1.1 Back Wall.

Two grab bars shall be installed on the back wall, one located in accordance with 609.4 and the other located 8 inches (205 mm) minimum and 10 inches (255 mm) maximum above the rim of the bathtub. Each grab bar shall be installed 15 inches (380 mm) maximum from the head end wall and 12 inches (305 mm) maximum from the control end wall.

607.4.1.2 Control End Wall.

A grab bar 24 inches (610 mm) long minimum shall be installed on the control end wall at the front edge of the bathtub.

607.4.2 Bathtubs Without Permanent Seats.

For bathtubs without permanent seats, grab bars shall comply with 607.4.2.

Figure (a) is an elevation drawing showing rear grab bars, one mounted 33 to 36 inches (840 to 915 mm) above the finish floor, and one mounted 8 to 10 inches (205 to 255 mm) above the tub rim.
Figure (b) is a plan view showing a grab bar on the foot (control) end wall 24 inches (610 mm) long minimum installed at the front edge of the tub.  Rear grab bars are 24 inches (610 mm) long minimum and are mounted 12 inches (305 mm) maximum from the foot (control) end wall and 24 inches (610 mm) maximum from the head end wall.  A grab bar 12 inches (305 mm) long minimum is installed on the head end wall at the front edge of the tub.

Figure 607.4.2 Grab Bars for Bathtubs with Removable In-Tub Seats

607.4.2.1 Back Wall.

Two grab bars shall be installed on the back wall, one located in accordance with 609.4 and other located 8 inches (205 mm) minimum and 10 inches (255 mm) maximum above the rim of the bathtub. Each grab bar shall be 24 inches (610 mm) long minimum and shall be installed 24 inches (610 mm) maximum from the head end wall and 12 inches (305 mm) maximum from the control end wall.

607.4.2.2 Control End Wall.

A grab bar 24 inches (610 mm) long minimum shall be installed on the control end wall at the front edge of the bathtub.

607.4.2.3 Head End Wall.

A grab bar 12 inches (305 mm) long minimum shall be installed on the head end wall at the front edge of the bathtub.

607.5 Controls.

Controls, other than drain stoppers, shall be located on an end wall. Controls shall be between the bathtub rim and grab bar, and between the open side of the bathtub and the centerline of the width of the bathtub. Controls shall comply with 309.4.

Elevation drawing shows the location of controls above the tub rim and below the grab bar and between the front edge of the tub and the tub centerline.

Figure 607.5 Bathtub Control Location

607.6 Shower Spray Unit and Water.

A shower spray unit with a hose 59 inches (1500 mm) long minimum that can be used both as a fixed-position shower head and as a hand-held shower shall be provided. The shower spray unit shall have an on/off control with a non-positive shut-off. If an adjustable-height shower head on a vertical bar is used, the bar shall be installed so as not to obstruct the use of grab bars. Bathtub shower spray units shall deliver water that is 120°F (49°C) maximum. [S.H. 4.20.6]

Advisory 607.6 Shower Spray Unit and Water. Ensure that hand-held shower spray units are capable of delivering water pressure substantially equivalent to fixed shower heads.
607.7 Bathtub Enclosures.

Enclosures for bathtubs shall not obstruct controls, faucets, shower and spray units or obstruct transfer from wheelchairs onto bathtub seats or into bathtubs. Enclosures on bathtubs shall not have tracks installed on the rim of the open face of the bathtub. [S.H. 4.20.7]

608.1 General.

Shower compartments shall comply with 608.

Advisory 608.1 General. Shower stalls that are 60 inches (1525 mm) wide and have no curb may increase the usability of a bathroom because the shower area provides additional maneuvering space.
608.2 Size and Clearances for Shower Compartments.

Shower compartments shall have sizes and clearances complying with 608.2.

608.2.1 Transfer Type Shower Compartments.

Transfer type shower compartments shall be 36 inches (915 mm) by 36 inches (915 mm) clear inside dimensions measured at the center points of opposing sides and shall have a 36 inch (915 mm) wide minimum entry on the face of the shower compartment. Clearance of 36 inches (915 mm) wide minimum by 48 inches (1220 mm) long minimum measured from the control wall shall be provided.

A transfer stall is shown in plan view to be 36 by 36 inches (915 by 915 mm).  Clear floor space in front is 36 inches (915 mm) wide minimum and 48 inches (1220 mm) long minimum measured from the control wall.

Figure 608.2.1 Transfer Type Shower Compartment Size and Clearance

608.2.2 Standard Roll-In Type Shower Compartments.

Standard roll-in type shower compartments shall be 30 inches (760 mm) wide minimum by 60 inches (1525 mm) deep minimum clear inside dimensions measured at center points of opposing sides and shall have a 60 inches (1525 mm) wide minimum entry on the face of the shower compartment.

A plan view shows the shower compartment is 30 inches (760 mm) minimum by 60 inches (1525 mm) minimum with a 60 inch (1525 mm) wide entry on the face of the compartment. A clear floor space 30 inches (760 mm) side is provided adjacent to the open face of the compartment. A seat is shown on one end. A lavatory is permitted within the clear floor space on the end opposite the seat.

Figure 608.2.2 Standard Roll-In Type Shower Compartment Size and Clearance

608.2.2.1 Clearance.

A 30 inch (760 mm) wide minimum by 60 inch (1525 mm) long minimum clearance shall be provided adjacent to the open face of the shower compartment.

EXCEPTION: A lavatory complying with 606 shall be permitted on one 30 inch (760 mm) wide minimum side of the clearance provided that it is not on the side of the clearance adjacent to the controls or, where provided, not on the side of the clearance adjacent to the shower seat.

608.2.3 Alternate Roll-In Type Shower Compartments.

Alternate roll-in type shower compartments shall be 36 inches (915 mm) wide and 60 inches (1525 mm) deep minimum clear inside dimensions measured at center points of opposing sides. A 36 inch (915 mm) wide minimum entry shall be provided at one end of the long side of the compartment.

A plan view shows the shower compartment is 36 inches (915 mm) wide absolute and 60 inches (1525 mm) deep minimum.  A 36 inch (915 mm) wide minimum entry is provided on one long wall.  A seat is provided adjacent to the entry on the same wall.

Figure 608.2.3 Alternate Roll-In Type Shower Compartment Size and Clearance

608.3 Grab Bars.

Grab bars shall comply with 609 and shall be provided in accordance with 608.3. Where multiple grab bars are used, required horizontal grab bars shall be installed at the same height above the finish floor. [S.H. 4.21.4]

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Grab bars shall not be required to be installed in a shower located in a bathing facility for a single occupant accessed only through a private office, and not for common use or public use provided that reinforcement has been installed in walls and located so as to permit the installation of grab bars complying with 608.3.

2. In residential dwelling units, grab bars shall not be required to be installed in showers located in bathing facilities provided that reinforcement has been installed in walls and located so as to permit the installation of grab bars complying with 608.3.

608.3.1 Transfer Type Shower Compartments.

In transfer type compartments, grab bars shall be provided across the control wall and back wall to a point 18 inches (455 mm) from the control wall.

Plan view shows a grab bar that extends across the control wall and the back wall to a point 18 inches (455 mm) from the control wall.

Figure 608.3.1 Grab Bars for Transfer Type Showers

608.3.2 Standard Roll-In Type Shower Compartments.

Where a seat is provided in standard roll-in type shower compartments, grab bars shall be provided on the back wall and the side wall opposite the seat. Grab bars shall not be provided above the seat. Where a seat is not provided in standard roll-in type shower compartments, grab bars shall be provided on three walls. Grab bars shall be installed 6 inches (150 mm) maximum from adjacent walls. [S.H. 4.21.4]

Figure (a) is a plan view of a shower without a seat.  Grab bars are provided on three walls that are 6 inches (150 mm) maximum from the adjacent wall.
Figure (b) is a plan view of a shower with a seat on one side wall.  Grab bars are provided on the opposite side wall and the back wall.  The back wall grab bar does not extend over the seat.  The grab bars are 6 inches (150 mm) maximum from the adjacent wall.

Figure 608.3.2 Grab Bars for Standard Roll-In Type Showers

608.3.3 Alternate Roll-In Type Shower Compartments.

In alternate roll-in type shower compartments, grab bars shall be provided on the back wall and the side wall farthest from the compartment entry. Grab bars shall not be provided above the seat. Grab bars shall be installed 6 inches (150 mm) maximum from adjacent walls. [S.H. 9.1.2]

This figure shows an alternate roll-in shower with a seat.  A grab bar extends on the wall opposite the seat and is 6 inches (150 mm) maximum from adjacent walls.  Another grab bar is mounted on the side wall adjacent to the seat; this grab bar does not extend over the seat and is 6 inches (150 mm) maximum from the back wall.

Figure 608.3.3 Grab Bars for Alternate Roll-In Type Showers

608.4 Seats.

A folding or non-folding seat shall be provided in transfer type shower compartments. A folding seat shall be provided in roll-in type showers required in transient lodging guest rooms with mobility features complying with 806.2. Seats shall comply with 610.

EXCEPTION: In residential dwelling units, seats shall not be required in transfer type shower compartments provided that reinforcement has been installed in walls so as to permit the installation of seats complying with 608.4.

608.5 Controls.

Controls, faucets, and shower spray units shall comply with 309.4.

608.5.1 Transfer Type Shower Compartments.

In transfer type shower compartments, the controls, faucets, and shower spray unit shall be installed on the side wall opposite the seat 38 inches (965 mm) minimum and 48 inches (1220 mm) maximum above the shower floor and shall be located on the control wall 15 inches (380 mm) maximum from the centerline of the seat toward the shower opening. [S.H. 4.21.5]

The area for controls, faucets and shower spray units is located 38 inches (965 mm) minimum to 48 inches (1220 mm) maximum above the shower floor on the control wall 15 inches (380 mm) maximum from the centerline of the seat, toward the shower opening.

Figure 608.5.1 Transfer Type Shower Compartment Control Location

608.5.2 Standard Roll-In Type Shower Compartments.

In standard roll-in type shower compartments, the controls, faucets, and shower spray unit shall be located above the grab bar, but no higher than 48 inches (1220 mm) above the shower floor. Where a seat is provided, the controls, faucets, and shower spray unit shall be installed on the back wall adjacent to the seat wall and shall be located 27 inches (685 mm) maximum from the seat wall.

Advisory 608.5.2 Standard Roll-in Type Shower Compartments. In standard roll-in type showers without seats, the shower head and operable parts can be located on any of the three walls of the shower without adversely affecting accessibility.
Figure (a) is an elevation drawing of a compartment without a seat.  The area for controls, faucets and shower spray units is located on any wall of the shower above the grab bar but no higher than 48 inches (1220 mm) above the shower floor.
Figure (b) is an elevation drawing of a compartment with a seat.  The area for controls, faucets and shower spray units is located on the back wall 27 inches (685 mm) from the seat wall and above the grab bar, but no higher than 48 inches (1220 mm) above the shower floor.

Figure 608.5.2 Standard Roll-In Type Shower Compartment Control Location

608.5.3 Alternate Roll-In Type Shower Compartments.

In alternate roll-in type shower compartments, the controls, faucets, and shower spray unit shall be located above the grab bar, but no higher than 48 inches (1220 mm) above the shower floor. Where a seat is provided, the controls, faucets, and shower spray unit shall be located on the side wall adjacent to the seat 27 inches (685 mm) maximum from the side wall behind the seat or shall be located on the back wall opposite the seat 15 inches (380 mm) maximum, left or right, of the centerline of the seat. Where a seat is not provided, the controls, faucets, and shower spray unit shall be installed on the side wall farthest from the compartment entry. [S.H. 4.21.5], [S.H. 9.1.2]

Figure (a) is an elevation drawing of a side wall adjacent to a seat.  The area for controls, faucets and shower spray units is located on the side wall adjacent to the seat, above the grab bar but no higher than 48 inches (1220 mm) above the shower floor, and extending 27 inches (685 mm) maximum from the seat wall.  Figure (b) shows an alternate location on the back wall, above the grab bar but no higher than 48 inches (1220 mm) above the shower floor, and extending from the side wall to 15 inches (380 mm) maximum from the center line of the seat.  Figures (c) and (d) are plan views of compartments without and with a seat, respectively.

Figure 608.5.3 Alternate Roll-In Type Shower Compartment Control Location

608.6 Shower Spray Unit and Water.

A shower spray unit with a hose 59 inches (1500 mm) long minimum that can be used both as a fixed-position shower head and as a hand-held shower shall be provided. The shower spray unit shall have an on/off control with a non-positive shut-off. If an adjustable-height shower head on a vertical bar is used, the bar shall be installed so as not to obstruct the use of grab bars. Shower spray units shall deliver water that is 120°F (49°C) maximum. [S.H. 4.21.6]

EXCEPTION: A fixed shower head located at 48 inches (1220 mm) maximum above the shower finish floor shall be permitted instead of a hand-held spray unit in facilities that are not medical care facilities, long-term care facilities, transient lodging guest rooms, or residential dwelling units.

Advisory 608.6 Shower Spray Unit and Water. Ensure that hand-held shower spray units are capable of delivering water pressure substantially equivalent to fixed shower heads.
608.7 Thresholds.

Thresholds in roll-in type shower compartments shall be ½ inch (13 mm) high maximum in accordance with 303. In transfer type shower compartments, thresholds ½ inch (13 mm) high maximum shall be beveled, rounded, or vertical.

EXCEPTION: A threshold 2 inches (51 mm) high maximum shall be permitted in transfer type shower compartments in existing facilities where provision of a ½ inch (13 mm) high threshold would disturb the structural reinforcement of the floor slab.

608.8 Shower Enclosures.

Enclosures for shower compartments shall not obstruct controls, faucets, and shower spray units or obstruct transfer from wheelchairs onto shower seats. [S.H. 4.21.8]

609.1 General.

Grab bars in toilet facilities and bathing facilities shall comply with 609.

609.2 Cross Section.

Grab bars shall have a cross section complying with 609.2.1 or 609.2.2.

609.2.1 Circular Cross Section.

Grab bars with circular cross sections shall have an outside diameter of 1¼ inches (32 mm) minimum and 2 inches (51 mm) maximum.

609.2.2 Non-Circular Cross Section.

Grab bars with non-circular cross sections shall have a cross-section dimension of 2 inches (51 mm) maximum and a perimeter dimension of 4 inches (100 mm) minimum and 4.8 inches (120 mm) maximum. [S.H. 4.26.2]

Figure (a) shows a handrail with an approximately square cross section and figure (b) shows an elliptical cross section.  The largest cross section dimension is 2 inches (51 mm) maximum.  The perimeter dimension must be 4 to 4.8 inches (100 to 120 mm).

Figure 609.2.2 Grab Bar Non-Circular Cross Section

609.3 Spacing.

The space between the wall and the grab bar shall be 1½ inches (38 mm). The space between the grab bar and projecting objects below and at the ends shall be 1½ inches (38 mm) minimum. The space between the grab bar and projecting objects above shall be 12 inches (305 mm) minimum.

EXCEPTION: The space between the grab bars and shower controls, shower fittings, and other grab bars above shall be permitted to be 1½ inches (38 mm) minimum.

A grab bar is shown with a projecting object mounted above and below it.  Projecting objects must spaced 1 ½ inch (38 mm) minimum below and 12 inches (305 mm) minimum above the grab bar.  Recessed objects can be spaced immediately above and below.
A grab bar is shown with a projecting object mounted above and below it.  Projecting objects must spaced 1 ½ inch (38 mm) minimum below and 12 inches (305 mm) minimum above the grab bar.  Recessed objects can be spaced immediately above and below.

Figure 609.3 Spacing of Grab Bars

609.4 Position of Grab Bars.

Grab bars shall be installed in a horizontal position, 33 inches (840 mm) minimum and 36 inches (915 mm) maximum above the finish floor measured to the top of the gripping surface, except that at water closets for children's use complying with 604.9, grab bars shall be installed in a horizontal position 18 inches (455 mm) minimum and 27 inches (685 mm) maximum above the finish floor measured to the top of the gripping surface. The height of the lower grab bar on the back wall of a bathtub shall comply with 607.4.1.1 or 607.4.2.1. [S.H. 4.16.4], [S.H. 4.17.6]

609.5 Surface Hazards.

Grab bars and any wall or other surfaces adjacent to grab bars shall be free of sharp or abrasive elements and shall have rounded edges.

609.6 Fittings.

Grab bars shall not rotate within their fittings.

609.7 Installation.

Grab bars shall be installed in any manner that provides a gripping surface at the specified locations and that does not obstruct the required clear floor space.

609.8 Structural Strength.

Allowable stresses shall not be exceeded for materials used when a vertical or horizontal force of 250 pounds (1112 N) is applied at any point on the grab bar, fastener, mounting device, or supporting structure.

610.1 General.

Seats in bathtubs and shower compartments shall comply with 610.

610.2 Bathtub Seats.

The top of bathtub seats shall be 17 inches (430 mm) minimum and 19 inches (485 mm) maximum above the bathroom finish floor. The depth of a removable in-tub seat shall be 15 inches (380 mm) minimum and 16 inches (405 mm) maximum. The seat shall be capable of secure placement. Permanent seats at the head end of the bathtub shall be 15 inches (380 mm) deep minimum and shall extend from the back wall to or beyond the outer edge of the bathtub. [S.H. 4.20.3]

Figure (a) shows a removable in-tub seat in elevation and plan views that is 15 to 16 inches (380 to 405 mm) deep and 17 to 19 inches (430 to 485 mm) above the floor measured to the top of the seat.  Figure (b) shows permanent tub seat in elevation and plan views that is 15 inches (380 mm) minimum deep and 17 to 19 inches (430 to 485 mm) above the floor measured to the top of the seat.

Figure 610.2 Bathtub Seats

610.3 Shower Compartment Seats.

Where a seat is provided in a standard roll-in shower compartment, it shall be a folding type, shall be installed on the side wall adjacent to the controls, and shall extend from the back wall to a point within 3 inches (75 mm) of the compartment entry. Where a seat is provided in an alternate roll-in type shower compartment, it shall be a folding type, shall be installed on the front wall opposite the back wall, and shall extend from the adjacent side wall to a point within 3 inches (75 mm) of the compartment entry. In transfer-type showers, the seat shall extend from the back wall to a point within 3 inches (75 mm) of the compartment entry. The top of the seat shall be 17 inches (430 mm) minimum and 19 inches (485 mm) maximum above the bathroom finish floor. Seats shall comply with 610.3.1 or 610.3.2.

Figure (a) is a plan view of a rectangular seat.  The front edge of each is 3 inches (75 mm) maximum from the compartment entry.
Figure (b) is a plan view of an L-shaped seat. The front edge of each is 3 inches (75 mm) maximum from the compartment entry.

Figure 610.3 Extent of Seat

610.3.1 Rectangular Seats.

The rear edge of a rectangular seat shall be 2½ inches (64 mm) maximum and the front edge 15 inches (380 mm) minimum and 16 inches (405 mm) maximum from the seat wall. The side edge of the seat shall be 1½ inches (38 mm) maximum from the adjacent wall. [S.H. 4.21.3]

The rear edge is 2 1/2 inches (64 mm) maximum and the front edge 15 to 16 inches (380 to 405 mm) from the seat wall.  The side edge is 1 1/2 inches (38 mm) maximum from the back wall.

Figure 610.3.1 Rectangular Shower Seat

610.3.2 L-Shaped Seats.

The rear edge of an L-shaped seat shall be 2½ inches (64 mm) maximum and the front edge 15 inches (380 mm) minimum and 16 inches (405 mm) maximum from the seat wall. The rear edge of the “L” portion of the seat shall be 1½ inches (38 mm) maximum from the wall and the front edge shall be 14 inches (355 mm) minimum and 15 inches (380 mm) maximum from the wall. The end of the “L” shall be 22 inches (560 mm) minimum and 23 inches maximum (585 mm) from the main seat wall. [S.H. 4.21.3]

Figures (a) shows the “L” is oriented with the narrower portion toward the compartment opening and the base toward the back.  The front edge of the narrow portion of the “L” is 15 to 16 inches (380 to 405 mm) from the seat wall and the base end is 22 to 23 inches (560 to 585 mm) from the seat wall.  The base of the “L” is 14 to 15 inches (355 to 380 mm) from the adjacent wall.
Figure (b) shows that the seat is 2 1/2 inches (64 mm) maximum from the seat wall and the rear edge of the L portion is 1 1/2 inches (38 mm) maximum from the adjacent wall.

Figure 610.3.2 L-Shaped Shower Seat

610.4 Structural Strength.

Allowable stresses shall not be exceeded for materials used when a vertical or horizontal force of 250 pounds (1112 N) is applied at any point on the seat, fastener, mounting device, or supporting structure.

611.1 General.

Washing machines and clothes dryers shall comply with 611.

611.2 Clear Floor Space.

A clear floor or ground space complying with 305 positioned for parallel approach shall be provided. The clear floor or ground space shall be centered on the appliance.

611.3 Operable Parts.

Operable parts, including doors, lint screens, and detergent and bleach compartments shall comply with 309.

611.4 Height.

Top loading machines shall have the door to the laundry compartment located 36 inches (915 mm) maximum above the finish floor. Front loading machines shall have the bottom of the opening to the laundry compartment located 15 inches (380 mm) minimum and 36 inches (915 mm) maximum above the finish floor.

Figure (a) shows a top loading machine with the door to the laundry compartment 36 inches (915 mm) maximum above the floor.
Figure (b) shows a front loading machine with the bottom of the opening to the laundry compartment 15 to 36 inches (380 to 915 mm) above the floor.

Figure 611.4 Height of Laundry Compartment Opening

612.1 General.

Saunas and steam rooms shall comply with 612.

612.2 Bench.

Where seating is provided in saunas and steam rooms, at least one bench shall comply with 903. Doors shall not swing into the clear floor space required by 903.2.

EXCEPTION: A readily removable bench shall be permitted to obstruct the turning space required by 612.3 and the clear floor or ground space required by 903.2.

612.3 Turning Space.

A turning space complying with 304 shall be provided within saunas and steam rooms.

701.1 Scope.

The provisions of Chapter 7 shall apply where required by Chapter 2 or where referenced by a requirement in this document.

702.1 General.

Fire alarm systems shall have permanently installed audible and visible alarms complying with NFPA 72 (1999 or 2002 edition) (incorporated by reference, see “Referenced Standards” in Chapter 1), except that the maximum allowable sound level of audible notification appliances complying with section 4‒3.2.1 of NFPA 72 (1999 edition) shall have a sound level no more than 110 dB at the minimum hearing distance from the audible appliance. In addition, alarms in guest rooms required to provide communication features shall comply with sections 4‒3 and 4‒4 of NFPA 72 (1999 edition) or sections 7.4 and 7.5 of NFPA 72 (2002 edition).

EXCEPTION: Fire alarm systems in medical care facilities shall be permitted to be provided in accordance with industry practice.

703.1 General.

Signs shall comply with 703. Where both visual and tactile characters are required, either one sign with both visual and tactile characters, or two separate signs, one with visual, and one with tactile characters, shall be provided.

703.2 Raised Characters.

Raised characters shall comply with 703.2 and shall be duplicated in braille complying with 703.3. Raised characters shall be installed in accordance with 703.4.

Advisory 703.2 Raised Characters. Signs that are designed to be read by touch should not have sharp or abrasive edges.  

703.2.1 Depth.

Raised characters shall be 1/32 inch (0.8 mm) minimum above their background.

703.2.2 Case.

Characters shall be uppercase.

703.2.3 Style.

Characters shall be sans serif. Characters shall not be italic, oblique, script, highly decorative, or of other unusual forms. [S.H. 4.30.4]

703.2.4 Character Proportions.

Characters shall be selected from fonts where the width of the uppercase letter “O” is 55 percent minimum and 110 percent maximum of the height of the uppercase letter “I”. [S.H. 4.30.4]

703.2.5 Character Height.

Character height measured vertically from the baseline of the character shall be 5/8 inch (16 mm) minimum and 2 inches (51 mm) maximum based on the height of the uppercase letter “I”. [S.H. 4.30.4]

EXCEPTION: Where separate raised and visual characters with the same information are provided, raised character height shall be permitted to be ½ inch (13 mm) minimum.

An Enlarged detail shows the character height measured from the baseline of the character is 5/8 to 2 inches (16 to 51 mm) based on the uppercase letter I.

Figure 703.2.5 Height of Raised Characters

703.2.6 Stroke Thickness.

Stroke thickness of the uppercase letter “I” shall be 15 percent maximum of the height of the character. [S.H. 4.30.2]

703.2.7 Character Spacing.

Character spacing shall be measured between the two closest points of adjacent raised characters within a message, excluding word spaces. Where characters have rectangular cross sections, spacing between individual raised characters shall be 1/8 inch (3.2 mm) minimum and 4 times the raised character stroke width maximum. Where characters have other cross sections, spacing between individual raised characters shall be 1/16 inch (1.6 mm) minimum and 4 times the raised character stroke width maximum at the base of the cross sections, and 1/8 inch (3.2 mm) minimum and 4 times the raised character stroke width maximum at the top of the cross sections. Characters shall be separated from raised borders and decorative elements 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) minimum. [S.H. 4.30.4]

703.2.8 Line Spacing.

Spacing between the baselines of separate lines of raised characters within a message shall be 135 percent minimum and 170 percent maximum of the raised character height. [S.H. 4.30.4]

703.3 Braille.

Braille shall be contracted (Grade 2) and shall comply with 703.3 and 703.4.

703.3.1 Dimensions and Capitalization.

Braille dots shall have a domed or rounded shape and shall comply with Table 703.3.1. The indication of an uppercase letter or letters shall only be used before the first word of sentences, proper nouns and names, individual letters of the alphabet, initials, and acronyms. [S.H. 4.30.4]

Table 703.3.1 Braille Dimensions
Measurement Range

Minimum in Inches

Maximum in Inches

Dot base diameter 0.059 (1.5 mm) to 0.063 (1.6 mm)
Distance between two dots in the same cell 1 0.090 (2.3 mm) to 0.100 (2.5 mm)
Distance between corresponding dots in adjacent cells 1 0.241 (6.1 mm) to 0.300 (7.6 mm)
Dot height 0.025 (0.6 mm) to 0.037 (0.9 mm)
Distance between corresponding dots from one cell directly below 1 0.395 (10 mm) to 0.400 (10.2 mm)

1 Measured center to center.

Six Braille cells are shown indicating what is meant by “dot diameter,” “distance between dots in the same cell,” “distance between dots in adjacent cells,” “distance between corresponding dots from one cell directly below” in Table 703.3.1.

Figure 703.3.1 Braille Measurement

703.3.2 Position.

Braille shall be positioned below the corresponding text. If text is multi-lined, braille shall be placed below the entire text. Braille shall be separated 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) minimum from any other tactile characters and 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) minimum from raised borders and decorative elements. [S.H. 4.30.4]

EXCEPTION: Braille provided on elevator car controls shall be separated 3/16 inch (4.8 mm) minimum and shall be located either directly below or adjacent to the corresponding raised characters or symbols.

An enlarged detail shows Braille dots positioned 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) minimum below tactile letters and 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) minimum separation from the sign border.

Figure 703.3.2 Position of Braille

703.4 Installation Height and Location.

Signs with tactile characters shall comply with 703.4.

703.4.1 Height Above Finish Floor or Ground.

Tactile characters on signs shall be located 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum above the finish floor or ground surface, measured from the baseline of the lowest tactile character and 60 inches (1525 mm) maximum above the finish floor or ground surface, measured from the baseline of the highest tactile character. [S.H. 4.30.6]

EXCEPTION: Tactile characters for elevator car controls shall not be required to comply with 703.4.1.

ETA Editor’s Note:

This figure is incorrect in showing Braille characters below the 48” minimum allowed for tactile characters. 

A tactile sign is shown mounted with the baseline of the lowest characters 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum and the baseline of the highest characters 60 inches (1525 mm) maximum above the finish floor.

Figure 703.4.1 Height of Tactile Characters Above Finish Floor or Ground

703.4.2 Location.

Where a tactile sign is provided at a door, the sign shall be located alongside the door at the latch side. Where a tactile sign is provided at double doors with one active leaf, the sign shall be located on the inactive leaf. Where a tactile sign is provided at double doors with two active leafs, the sign shall be located to the right of the right hand door. Where there is no wall space at the latch side of a single door or at the right side of double doors, signs shall be located on the nearest adjacent wall. Signs containing tactile characters shall be located so that a clear floor space of 18 inches (455 mm) minimum by 18 inches (455 mm) minimum, centered on the tactile characters, is provided beyond the arc of any door swing between the closed position and 45 degree open position. [S.H. 4.30.6]

EXCEPTION: Signs with tactile characters shall be permitted on the push side of doors with closers and without hold-open devices.

A sign with tactile characters is mounted so that clear floor space 18 by 18 inches (455 by 455 mm) minimum, centered on the tactile characters, is provided beyond the arc of any door swing between the closed position and 45 degree open position.

Figure 703.4.2 Location of Tactile Signs at Doors

703.5 Visual Characters.

Visual characters shall comply with 703.5.

EXCEPTION: Where visual characters comply with 703.2 and are accompanied by braille complying with 703.3, they shall not be required to comply with 703.5.2 through 703.5.9.

703.5.1 Finish and Contrast.

Characters and their background shall have a non-glare finish. Characters shall contrast with their background with either light characters on a dark background or dark characters on a light background.

Advisory 703.5.1 Finish and Contrast. Signs are more legible for persons with low vision when characters contrast as much as possible with their background. Additional factors affecting the ease with which the text can be distinguished from its background include shadows cast by lighting sources, surface glare, and the uniformity of the text and its background colors and textures.
703.5.2 Case.

Characters shall be uppercase or lowercase or a combination of both.

703.5.3 Style.

Characters shall be conventional in form. Characters shall not be italic, oblique, script, highly decorative, or of other unusual forms. [S.H. 4.30.2]

703.5.4 Character Proportions.

Characters shall be selected from fonts where the width of the uppercase letter “O” is 55 percent minimum and 110 percent maximum of the height of the uppercase letter “I”. [S.H. 4.30.2]

703.5.5 Character Height.

Minimum character height shall comply with Table 703.5.5. Viewing distance shall be measured as the horizontal distance between the character and an obstruction preventing further approach towards the sign. Character height shall be based on the uppercase letter “I”. [S.H. 4.30.3]

Table 703.5.5 Visual Character Height
Height to Finish Floor or Ground From Baseline of Character Horizontal Viewing Distance Minimum Character Height
40 Inches (1015 mm to less than or equal to 70 inches (1780 mm)

less than 72 inches (1830 mm)

5/8 inch (16 mm)
40 Inches (1015 mm to less than or equal to 70 inches (1780 mm) 72 inches (1830 mm) and greater 5/8 inch (16 mm), plus 1/8 inch (3.2 mm) per foot (305 mm) or viewing distance above 72 inches (1830 mm)
Greater than 70 inches (1780 mm) to less than or equal to 120 inches (3050 mm) less than 180 inches (4570 mm) 2 inches (51 mm)
Greater than 70 inches (1780 mm) to less than or equal to 120 inches (3050 mm) 180 inches (4570 mm) and greater 2 inches (51 mm), plus 1/8 inch (3.2 mm) per foot (305 mm) of viewing distance above 180 inches (4570 mm)
Greater than 120 inches (3050 mm) less than 21 feet (6400 mm) 3 inches (75 mm)
Greater than 120 inches (3050 mm) 21 feet (6400 mm) and greater 3 inches (75 mm), plus 1/8 inch (3.2 mm) per foot (305 mm) of viewing distance above 21 feet (6400 mm)
703.5.6 Height from Finish Floor or Ground.

Visual characters shall be 40 inches (1015 mm) minimum above the finish floor or ground.

EXCEPTION: Visual characters indicating elevator car controls shall not be required to comply with 703.5.6.

703.5.7 Stroke Thickness.

Stroke thickness of the uppercase letter “I” shall be 10 percent minimum and 30 percent maximum of the height of the character. [S.H. 4.30.2]

703.5.8 Character Spacing.

Character spacing shall be measured between the two closest points of adjacent characters, excluding word spaces. Spacing between individual characters shall be 10 percent minimum and 35 percent maximum of character height. [S.H. 4.30.2]

703.5.9 Line Spacing.

Spacing between the baselines of separate lines of characters within a message shall be 135 percent minimum and 170 percent maximum of the character height. [S.H. 4.30.2]

703.6 Pictograms.

Pictograms shall comply with 703.6.

703.6.1 Pictogram Field.

Pictograms shall have a field height of 6 inches (150 mm) minimum. Characters and braille shall not be located in the pictogram field.

The field height for a men’s room pictogram is shown to be 6 inches (150 mm) minimum.  Tactile and Braille characters are located below, outside the pictogram field.

Figure 703.6.1 Pictogram Field

703.6.2 Finish and Contrast.

Pictograms and their field shall have a non-glare finish. Pictograms shall contrast with their field with either a light pictogram on a dark field or a dark pictogram on a light field.

Advisory 703.6.2 Finish and Contrast. Signs are more legible for persons with low vision when characters contrast as much as possible with their background. Additional factors affecting the ease with which the text can be distinguished from its background include shadows cast by lighting sources, surface glare, and the uniformity of the text and background colors and textures.
703.6.3 Text Descriptors.

Pictograms shall have text descriptors located directly below the pictogram field. Text descriptors shall comply with 703.2, 703.3 and 703.4.

703.7 Symbols of Accessibility.

Symbols of accessibility shall comply with 703.7.

703.7.1 Finish and Contrast.

Symbols of accessibility and their background shall have a non-glare finish. Symbols of accessibility shall contrast with their background with either a light symbol on a dark background or a dark symbol on a light background. [S.H. 4.30.7(1)]

Advisory 703.7.1 Finish and Contrast. Signs are more legible for persons with low vision when characters contrast as much as possible with their background. Additional factors affecting the ease with which the text can be distinguished from its background include shadows cast by lighting sources, surface glare, and the uniformity of the text and background colors and textures.

703.7.2.1 International Symbol of Accessibility.

The International Symbol of Accessibility shall comply with Figure 703.7.2.1.

Pictogram that shows the simplified profile of a person seated in a wheelchair.

Figure 703.7.2.1 International Symbol of Accessibility

703.7.2.2 International Symbol of TTY.

The International Symbol of TTY shall comply with Figure 703.7.2.2.

Pictogram of a TTY showing the keyboard and space bar typical of most devices and the shape of a telephone handset at the top.

Figure 703.7.2.2 International Symbol of TTY

703.7.2.3 Volume Control Telephones.

Telephones with a volume control shall be identified by a pictogram of a telephone handset with radiating sound waves on a square field such as shown in Figure 703.7.2.3. [S.H. 4.30.7(2)]

Pictogram of a telephone handset in profile with radiating sound waves.

Figure 703.7.2.3 Volume Control Telephone

703.7.2.4 Assistive Listening Systems.

Assistive listening systems shall be identified by the International Symbol of Access for Hearing Loss complying with Figure 703.7.2.4.

Pictogram with the shape of an ear and a bar diagonally across the shape.

Figure 703.7.2.4 International Symbol of Access for Hearing Loss

704 Telephones.

Public telephones shall comply with 704.

704.1 General.

Public telephones shall comply with 704.

704.2 Wheelchair Accessible Telephones.

Wheelchair accessible telephones shall comply with 704.2.

704.2.1 Clear Floor or Ground Space.

A clear floor or ground space complying with 305 shall be provided. The clear floor or ground space shall not be obstructed by bases, enclosures, or seats.

Advisory 704.2.1 Clear Floor or Ground Space. Because clear floor and ground space is required to be unobstructed, telephones, enclosures and related telephone book storage cannot encroach on the required clear floor or ground space and must comply with the provisions for protruding objects. (See Section 307).

704.2.1.1 Parallel Approach.

Where a parallel approach is provided, the distance from the edge of the telephone enclosure to the face of the telephone unit shall be 10 inches (255 mm) maximum.

The maximum distance from the face of the telephone to the edge of the telephone enclosure is 10 inches (255 mm).  Clear floor space for a parallel approach is located in front of the enclosure.

Figure 704.2.1.1 Parallel Approach to Telephone

704.2.1.2 Forward Approach.

Where a forward approach is provided, the distance from the front edge of a counter within the telephone enclosure to the face of the telephone unit shall be 20 inches (510 mm) maximum. [S.H. 4.31.2]

The maximum distance from the front edge of a counter within the telephone enclosure to the face of the telephone is 20 inches (510 mm).  The telephone enclosure overlaps the clear floor space for a forward approach.

Figure 704.2.1.2 Forward Approach to Telephone

704.2.2 Operable Parts.

Operable parts shall comply with 309. Telephones shall have push-button controls where such service is available.

704.2.3 Telephone Directories.

Telephone directories, where provided, shall be located in accordance with 309.

704.2.4 Cord Length.

The cord from the telephone to the handset shall be 29 inches (735 mm) long minimum.

704.3 Volume Control Telephones.

Public telephones required to have volume controls shall be equipped with a receive volume control that provides a gain adjustable up to 20 dB minimum. For incremental volume control, provide at least one intermediate step of 12 dB of gain minimum. An automatic reset shall be provided. [S.H. 4.31.5(2)]

Advisory 704.3 Volume Control Telephones. Amplifiers on pay phones are located in the base or the handset or are built into the telephone. Most are operated by pressing a button or key. If the microphone in the handset is not being used, a mute button that temporarily turns off the microphone can also reduce the amount of background noise which the person hears in the earpiece. If a volume adjustment is provided that allows the user to set the level anywhere from the base volume to the upper requirement of 20 dB, there is no need to specify a lower limit. If a stepped volume control is provided, one of the intermediate levels must provide 12 dB of gain. Consider compatibility issues when matching an amplified handset with a phone or phone system. Amplified handsets that can be switched with pay telephone handsets are available. Portable and in-line amplifiers can be used with some phones but are not practical at most public phones covered by these requirements.
704.4 TTYs.

TTYs required at a public pay telephone shall be permanently affixed within, or adjacent to, the telephone enclosure. Where an acoustic coupler is used, the telephone cord shall be sufficiently long to allow connection of the TTY and the telephone receiver.

Advisory 704.4 TTYs. Ensure that sufficient electrical service is available where TTYs are to be installed.
704.4.1 Height.

When in use, the touch surface of TTY keypads shall be 34 inches (865 mm) minimum above the finish floor. [S.H. 4.31.9(2)]

EXCEPTION: Where seats are provided, TTYs shall not be required to comply with 704.4.1.

Advisory 704.4.1 Height. A telephone with a TTY installed underneath cannot also be a wheelchair accessible telephone because the required 34 inches (865 mm) minimum keypad height can causes the highest operable part of the telephone, usually the coin slot, to exceed the maximum permitted side and forward reach ranges. (See Section 308).

Advisory 704.4.1 Height Exception. While seats are not required at TTYs, reading and typing at a TTY is more suited to sitting than standing. Facilities that often provide seats at TTY’s include, but are not limited to, airports and other passenger terminals or stations, courts, art galleries, and convention centers.

704.5 TTY Shelf.

Public pay telephones required to accommodate portable TTYs shall be equipped with a shelf and an electrical outlet within or adjacent to the telephone enclosure. The telephone handset shall be capable of being placed flush on the surface of the shelf. The shelf shall be capable of accommodating a TTY and shall have 6 inches (150 mm) minimum vertical clearance above the area where the TTY is to be placed.

705 Detectable Warnings.

Detectable warnings shall consist of a surface of truncated domes and shall comply with 705.

705.1 General.

Detectable warnings shall consist of a surface of truncated domes and shall comply with 705.

Figure (a) is an enlarged elevation drawing of a single dome showing the base diameter as 0.9 to 1.4 inches (23 to 36 mm) and the top surface as having a diameter of 50% to 65% of the bas.  The dome height is 0.2 inch (5.1 mm).
Figure (b) is a plan view of a detectable warning surface showing the center-to-center dome spacing of 1.6 to 2.4 inches (41 to 61 mm) with a base-to-base separation of 0.65 inch (17 mm) minimum.

Figure 705.1 Size and Spacing of Truncated Domes

705.1.1 Dome Size.

Truncated domes in a detectable warning surface shall have a base diameter of 0.9 inch (23 mm) minimum and 1.4 inches (36 mm) maximum, a top diameter of 50 percent of the base diameter minimum to 65 percent of the base diameter maximum, and a height of 0.2 inch (5.1 mm).

705.1.2 Dome Spacing.

Truncated domes in a detectable warning surface shall have a center-to-center spacing of 1.6 inches (41 mm) minimum and 2.4 inches (61 mm) maximum, and a base-to-base spacing of 0.65 inch (17 mm) minimum, measured between the most adjacent domes on a square grid. [S.H. 4.29.2]

705.1.3 Contrast.

Detectable warning surfaces shall contrast visually with adjacent walking surfaces either light-on-dark, or dark-on-light.

705.2 Platform Edges.

Detectable warning surfaces at platform boarding edges shall be 24 inches (610 mm) wide and shall extend the full length of the public use areas of the platform.

706.1 General.

Assistive listening systems required in assembly areas shall comply with 706.

Advisory 706.1 General. Assistive listening systems are generally categorized by their mode of transmission. There are hard-wired systems and three types of wireless systems: induction loop, infrared, and FM radio transmission. Each has different advantages and disadvantages that can help determine which system is best for a given application. For example, an FM system may be better than an infrared system in some open-air assemblies since infrared signals are less effective in sunlight. On the other hand, an infrared system is typically a better choice than an FM system where confidential transmission is important because it will be contained within a given space.

The technical standards for assistive listening systems describe minimum performance levels for volume, interference, and distortion. Sound pressure levels (SPL), expressed in decibels, measure output sound volume. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR or S/N), also expressed in decibels, represents the relationship between the loudness of a desired sound (the signal) and the background noise in a space or piece of equipment. The higher the SNR, the more intelligible the signal. The peak clipping level limits the distortion in signal output produced when high-volume sound waves are manipulated to serve assistive listening devices.

Selecting or specifying an effective assistive listening system for a large or complex venue requires assistance from a professional sound engineer. The Access Board has published technical assistance on assistive listening devices and system (http://www.access-board.gov/adaag/about/bulletins/als-index.htm).

706.2 Receiver Jacks.

Receivers required for use with an assistive listening system shall include a 1/8 inch (3.2 mm) standard mono jack. [S.H. 4.33.7]

706.3 Receiver Hearing-Aid Compatibility.

Receivers required to be hearing-aid compatible shall interface with telecoils in hearing aids through the provision of neckloops. [S.H. 4.33.7]

Advisory 706.3 Receiver Hearing-Aid Compatibility. Neckloops and headsets that can be worn as neckloops are compatible with hearing aids. Receivers that are not compatible include earbuds, which may require removal of hearing aids, earphones, and headsets that must be worn over the ear, which can create disruptive interference in the transmission and can be uncomfortable for people wearing hearing aids.
706.4 Sound Pressure Level.

Assistive listening systems shall be capable of providing a sound pressure level of 110 dB minimum and 118 dB maximum with a dynamic range on the volume control of 50 dB. [S.H. 4.33.7]

706.5 Signal-to-Noise Ratio.

The signal-to-noise ratio for internally generated noise in assistive listening systems shall be 18 dB minimum. [S.H. 4.33.7]

706.6 Peak Clipping Level.

Peak clipping shall not exceed 18 dB of clipping relative to the peaks of speech. [S.H. 4.33.7]

707 Automatic Teller Machines and Fare Machines

Advisory 707 Automatic Teller Machines and Fare Machines. Interactive transaction machines (ITMs), other than ATMs, are not covered by Section 707. However, for entities covered by the ADA, the Department of Justice regulations that implement the ADA provide additional guidance regarding the relationship between these requirements and elements that are not directly addressed by these requirements. Federal procurement law requires that ITMs purchased by the Federal government comply with standards issued by the Access Board under Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended. This law covers a variety of products, including computer hardware and software, websites, phone systems, fax machines, copiers, and similar technologies. For more information on Section 508 consult the Access Board’s website at www.access-board.gov.

707.1 General.

Automatic teller machines and fare machines shall comply with 707.

Advisory 707.1 General. If farecards have one tactually distinctive corner they can be inserted with greater accuracy. Token collection devices that are designed to accommodate tokens which are perforated can allow a person to distinguish more readily between tokens and common coins. Place accessible gates and fare vending machines in close proximity to other accessible elements when feasible so the facility is easier to use.
707.2 Clear Floor or Ground Space.

A clear floor or ground space complying with 305 shall be provided.

EXCEPTION: Clear floor or ground space shall not be required at drive-up only automatic teller machines and fare machines.

707.3 Operable Parts.

Operable parts shall comply with 309. Unless a clear or correct key is provided, each operable part shall be able to be differentiated by sound or touch, without activation. [S.H. 4.34.3], [S.H. 4.34.5]

EXCEPTION: Drive-up only automatic teller machines and fare machines shall not be required to comply with 309.2 and 309.3.

707.4 Privacy.

Automatic teller machines shall provide the opportunity for the same degree of privacy of input and output available to all individuals.

Advisory 707.4 Privacy. In addition to people who are blind or visually impaired, people with limited reach who use wheelchairs or have short stature, who cannot effectively block the ATM screen with their bodies, may prefer to use speech output. Speech output users can benefit from an option to render the visible screen blank, thereby affording them greater personal security and privacy.

ETA Editor’s Note:

The Department of Justice considers the communication-related elements of ATMs to be auxiliary aids and services, rather than structural elements, to which the safe harbor for elements built in compliance with the 1991 standards does not apply. The Department believes that the limitations on the effective communication requirements, i.e., a covered entity does not have to take measures that would result in a fundamental alteration of its program or would cause undue burdens, provide adequate protection to operators of ATMs. (From “Part 36 Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability in Public Accommodations and Commercial Facilities (as amended by the final rule published on September 15, 2010)). 

707.5 Speech Output.

Machines shall be speech enabled. Operating instructions and orientation, visible transaction prompts, user input verification, error messages, and all displayed information for full use shall be accessible to and independently usable by individuals with vision impairments. Speech shall be delivered through a mechanism that is readily available to all users, including but not limited to, an industry standard connector or a telephone handset. Speech shall be recorded or digitized human, or synthesized.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Audible tones shall be permitted instead of speech for visible output that is not displayed for security purposes, including but not limited to, asterisks representing personal identification numbers.

2. Advertisements and other similar information shall not be required to be audible unless they convey information that can be used in the transaction being conducted.

3. Where speech synthesis cannot be supported, dynamic alphabetic output shall not be required to be audible.

Advisory 707.5 Speech Output. If an ATM provides additional functions such as dispensing coupons, selling theater tickets, or providing copies of monthly statements, all such functions must be available to customers using speech output. To avoid confusion at the ATM, the method of initiating the speech mode should be easily discoverable and should not require specialized training. For example, if a telephone handset is provided, lifting the handset can initiate the speech mode.
707.5.1 User Control.

Speech shall be capable of being repeated or interrupted. Volume control shall be provided for the speech function.

EXCEPTION: Speech output for any single function shall be permitted to be automatically interrupted when a transaction is selected.

707.5.2 Receipts.

Where receipts are provided, speech output devices shall provide audible balance inquiry information, error messages, and all other information on the printed receipt necessary to complete or verify the transaction.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Machine location, date and time of transaction, customer account number, and the machine identifier shall not be required to be audible.

2. Information on printed receipts that duplicates information available on-screen shall not be required to be presented in the form of an audible receipt.

3. Printed copies of bank statements and checks shall not be required to be audible.

707.6 Input.

Input devices shall comply with 707.6.

707.6.1 Input Controls.

At least one tactilely discernible input control shall be provided for each function. Where provided, key surfaces not on active areas of display screens, shall be raised above surrounding surfaces. Where membrane keys are the only method of input, each shall be tactilely discernable from surrounding surfaces and adjacent keys.

707.6.2 Numeric Keys.

Numeric keys shall be arranged in a 12-key ascending or descending telephone keypad layout. The number five key shall be tactilely distinct from the other keys.

Advisory 707.6.2 Numeric Keys. Telephone keypads and computer keyboards differ in one significant feature, ascending versus descending numerical order. Both types of keypads are acceptable, provided the computer-style keypad is organized similarly to the number pad located at the right on most computer keyboards, and does not resemble the line of numbers located above the computer keys.
Figure (a) shows a 12-key ascending layout with “1” in the upper left corner, such as a telephone.
Figure (b) shows a descending layout with “7” in the upper left corner, such as a computer numeric keypad.

Figure 707.6.2 Numeric Key Layout

707.6.3 Function Keys.

Function keys shall comply with 707.6.3.

707.6.3.1 Contrast.

Function keys shall contrast visually from background surfaces. Characters and symbols on key surfaces shall contrast visually from key surfaces. Visual contrast shall be either light-on-dark or dark-on-light.

EXCEPTION: Tactile symbols required by 707.6.3.2 shall not be required to comply with 707.6.3.1.

707.6.3.2 Tactile Symbols.

Function key surfaces shall have tactile symbols as follows: Enter or Proceed key: raised circle; Clear or Correct key: raised left arrow; Cancel key: raised letter ex; Add Value key: raised plus sign; Decrease Value key: raised minus sign.

707.7 Display Screen.

The display screen shall comply with 707.7.

EXCEPTION: Drive-up only automatic teller machines and fare machines shall not be required to comply with 707.7.1.

707.7.1 Visibility.

The display screen shall be visible from a point located 40 inches (1015 mm) above the center of the clear floor space in front of the machine.

707.7.2 Characters.

Characters displayed on the screen shall be in a sans serif font. Characters shall be 3/16 inch (4.8 mm) high minimum based on the uppercase letter "I". Characters shall contrast with their background with either light characters on a dark background or dark characters on a light background.

707.8 Braille Instructions.

Braille instructions for initiating the speech mode shall be provided. Braille shall comply with 703.3.

708.1 General.

Two-way communication systems shall comply with 708.

Advisory 708.1 General. Devices that do not require handsets are easier to use by people who have a limited reach.
708.2 Audible and Visual Indicators.

The system shall provide both audible and visual signals.

Advisory 708.2 Audible and Visual Indicators. A light can be used to indicate visually that assistance is on the way. Signs indicating the meaning of visual signals should be provided.
708.3 Handsets.

Handset cords, if provided, shall be 29 inches (735 mm) long minimum.

708.4 Residential Dwelling Unit Communication Systems.

Communications systems between a residential dwelling unit and a site, building, or floor entrance shall comply with 708.4.

708.4.1 Common Use or Public Use System Interface.

The common use or public use system interface shall include the capability of supporting voice and TTY communication with the residential dwelling unit interface.

708.4.2 Residential Dwelling Unit Interface.

The residential dwelling unit system interface shall include a telephone jack capable of supporting voice and TTY communication with the common use or public use system interface.

801.1 Scope.

The provisions of Chapter 8 shall apply where required by Chapter 2 or where referenced by a requirement in this document.

Advisory 801.1 Scope. Facilities covered by these requirements are also subject to the requirements of the other chapters. For example, 806 addresses guest rooms in transient lodging facilities while 902 contains the technical specifications for dining surfaces. If a transient lodging facility contains a restaurant, the restaurant must comply with requirements in other chapters such as those applicable to certain dining surfaces.
802.1 Wheelchair Spaces.

Wheelchair spaces shall comply with 802.1.

802.1.1 Floor or Ground Surface.

The floor or ground surface of wheelchair spaces shall comply with 302. Changes in level are not permitted.

EXCEPTION: Slopes not steeper than 1:48 shall be permitted.

802.1.2 Width.

A single wheelchair space shall be 36 inches (915 mm) wide minimum Where two adjacent wheelchair spaces are provided, each wheelchair space shall be 33 inches (840 mm) wide minimum. [S.H. 4.33.2]

Figure (a) is a plan view of a single wheelchair space 36 inches (915 mm) wide minimum.
Figure (b) is a plan view of two wheelchair spaces side by side.  Each space is 33 inches (840 mm) wide minimum.

Figure 802.1.2 Width of Wheelchair Spaces

802.1.3 Depth.

Where a wheelchair space can be entered from the front or rear, the wheelchair space shall be 48 inches (1220 mm) deep minimum. Where a wheelchair space can be entered only from the side, the wheelchair space shall be 60 inches (1525 mm) deep minimum.

Figure (a) shows a wheelchair space that can be entered from the front or rear that is 48 inches (1220 mm) deep minimum.
Figure (b) shows a wheelchair space entered from the side that is 60 inches (1525 mm) deep minimum.

Figure 802.1.3 Depth of Wheelchair Spaces

802.1.4 Approach.

Wheelchair spaces shall adjoin accessible routes. Accessible routes shall not overlap wheelchair spaces. [S.H. 4.33.3], [S.H. 4.2.4.2], [S.H. Fig. 46(b)]

Advisory 802.1.4 Approach. Because accessible routes serving wheelchair spaces are not permitted to overlap the clear floor space at wheelchair spaces, access to any wheelchair space cannot be through another wheelchair space.
802.1.5 Overlap.

Wheelchair spaces shall not overlap circulation paths.

Advisory 802.1.5 Overlap. The term “circulation paths” used in Section 802.1.5 means aisle width required by applicable building or life safety codes for the specific assembly occupancy. Where the circulation path provided is wider than the required aisle width, the wheelchair space may intrude into that portion of the circulation path that is provided in excess of the required aisle width.
802.2 Lines of Sight.

Lines of sight to the screen, performance area, or playing field for spectators in wheelchair spaces shall comply with 802.2.

802.2.1 Lines of Sight Over Seated Spectators.

Where spectators are expected to remain seated during events, spectators in wheelchair spaces shall be afforded lines of sight complying with 802.2.1. [S.H. 4.33.3]

802.2.1.1 Lines of Sight Over Heads.

Where spectators are provided lines of sight over the heads of spectators seated in the first row in front of their seats, spectators seated in wheelchair spaces shall be afforded lines of sight over the heads of seated spectators in the first row in front of wheelchair spaces. [S.H. 4.33.3]

Elevation drawing shows a person using a wheelchair on an upper level of tiered seating having a line of sight over the heads of spectators seated in front.

Figure 802.2.1.1 Lines of Sight Over the Heads of Seated Spectators

802.2.1.2 Lines of Sight Between Heads.

Where spectators are provided lines of sight over the shoulders and between the heads of spectators seated in the first row in front of their seats, spectators seated in wheelchair spaces shall be afforded lines of sight over the shoulders and between the heads of seated spectators in the first row in front of wheelchair spaces. [S.H. 4.33.3]

Elevation drawing shows a person using a wheelchair on an upper level of tiered seating having a line of sight between the heads of spectators seated in front.

Figure 802.2.1.2 Lines of Sight Between the Heads of Seated Spectators

802.2.2 Lines of Sight Over Standing Spectators.

Where spectators are expected to stand during events, spectators in wheelchair spaces shall be afforded lines of sight complying with 802.2.2. [S.H. 4.33.3]

802.2.2.1 Lines of Sight Over Heads.

Where standing spectators are provided lines of sight over the heads of spectators standing in the first row in front of their seats, spectators seated in wheelchair spaces shall be afforded lines of sight over the heads of standing spectators in the first row in front of wheelchair spaces. [S.H. 4.33.3]

Elevation drawing shows a person using a wheelchair on an upper level of tiered seating elevated sufficiently to have a line of sight over the heads of spectators standing in front.

Figure 802.2.2.1 Lines of Sight Over the Heads of Standing Spectators

802.2.2.2 Lines of Sight Between Heads.

Where standing spectators are provided lines of sight over the shoulders and between the heads of spectators standing in the first row in front of their seats, spectators seated in wheelchair spaces shall be afforded lines of sight over the shoulders and between the heads of standing spectators in the first row in front of wheelchair spaces. [S.H. 4.33.3]

Elevation drawing shows a person using a wheelchair on an upper level of tiered seating elevated sufficiently to have a line of sight between the heads of spectators standing in front.

Figure 802.2.2.2 Lines of Sight Between the Heads of Standing Spectators

802.3 Companion Seats.

Companion seats shall comply with 802.3.

802.3.1 Alignment.

In row seating, companion seats shall be located to provide shoulder alignment with adjacent wheelchair spaces. The shoulder alignment point of the wheelchair space shall be measured 36 inches (915 mm) from the front of the wheelchair space. The floor surface of the companion seat shall be at the same elevation as the floor surface of the wheelchair space. [S.H. 4.33.3]

802.3.2 Type.

Companion seats shall be equivalent in size, quality, comfort, and amenities to the seating in the immediate area. Companion seats shall be permitted to be movable. [S.H. 4.33.3]

802.4 Designated Aisle Seats.

Designated aisle seats shall comply with 802.4.

802.4.1 Armrests.

Where armrests are provided on the seating in the immediate area, folding or retractable armrests shall be provided on the aisle side of the seat.

802.4.2 Identification.

Each designated aisle seat shall be identified by a sign or marker.

Advisory 802.4.2 Identification. Seats with folding or retractable armrests are intended for use by individuals who have difficulty walking. Consider identifying such seats with signs that contrast (light-on-dark or dark-on-light) and that are also photo luminescent.
803.1 General.

Dressing, fitting, and locker rooms shall comply with 803.

Advisory 803.1 General. Partitions and doors should be designed to ensure people using accessible dressing and fitting rooms privacy equivalent to that afforded other users of the facility. Section 903.5 requires dressing room bench seats to be installed so that they are at the same height as a typical wheelchair seat, 17 inches (430 mm) to 19 inches (485 mm). However, wheelchair seats can be lower than dressing room benches for people of short stature or children using wheelchairs.
803.2 Turning Space.

Turning space complying with 304 shall be provided within the room.

803.3 Door Swing.

Doors shall not swing into the room unless a clear floor or ground space complying with 305.3 is provided beyond the arc of the door swing. [S.H. 4.35.2]

803.4 Benches.

A bench complying with 903 shall be provided within the room.

803.5 Coat Hooks and Shelves.

Coat hooks provided within the room shall be located within one of the reach ranges specified in 308. Shelves shall be 40 inches (1015 mm) minimum and 48 inches (1220 mm) maximum above the finish floor or ground. [S.H. 4.25.3]