28 CFR Part 35 Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability in State and Local Government Services (2010 ADA Title II Regulations with amendments issued through Aug. 2016)
§ 35.160 General.
(1) A public entity shall take appropriate steps to ensure that communications with applicants, participants, members of the public, and companions with disabilities are as effective as communications with others.
(2) For purposes of this section, “companion” means a family member, friend, or associate of an individual seeking access to a service, program, or activity of a public entity, who, along with such individual, is an appropriate person with whom the public entity should communicate.
(1) A public entity shall furnish appropriate auxiliary aids and services where necessary to afford qualified individuals with disabilities, including applicants, participants, companions, and members of the public, an equal opportunity to participate in, and enjoy the benefits of, a service, program, or activity of a public entity.
(2) The type of auxiliary aid or service necessary to ensure effective communication will vary in accordance with the method of communication used by the individual; the nature, length, and complexity of the communication involved; and the context in which the communication is taking place. In determining what types of auxiliary aids and services are necessary, a public entity shall give primary consideration to the requests of individuals with disabilities. In order to be effective, auxiliary aids and services must be provided in accessible formats, in a timely manner, and in such a way as to protect the privacy and independence of the individual with a disability.
(1) A public entity shall not require an individual with a disability to bring another individual to interpret for him or her.
(2) A public entity shall not rely on an adult accompanying an individual with a disability to interpret or facilitate communication except—
(i) In an emergency involving an imminent threat to the safety or welfare of an individual or the public where there is no interpreter available; or
(ii) Where the individual with a disability specifically requests that the accompanying adult interpret or facilitate communication, the accompanying adult agrees to provide such assistance, and reliance on that adult for such assistance is appropriate under the circumstances.
(3) A public entity shall not rely on a minor child to interpret or facilitate communication, except in an emergency involving an imminent threat to the safety or welfare of an individual or the public where there is no interpreter available.
(d) Video remote interpreting (VRI) services. A public entity that chooses to provide qualified interpreters via VRI services shall ensure that it provides—
(1) Real-time, full-motion video and audio over a dedicated high-speed, wide-bandwidth video connection or wireless connection that delivers high-quality video images that do not produce lags, choppy, blurry, or grainy images, or irregular pauses in communication;
(2) A sharply delineated image that is large enough to display the interpreter's face, arms, hands, and fingers, and the participating individual's face, arms, hands, and fingers, regardless of his or her body position;
(3) A clear, audible transmission of voices; and
(4) Adequate training to users of the technology and other involved individuals so that they may quickly and efficiently set up and operate the VRI.
- Federal Documents (8)
- Regulations (3)
- 28 CFR Part 35 Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability in State and Local Government Services (2010 ADA Title II Regulations with amendments issued through Aug. 2016) (1)
- 28 CFR Part 35 Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability in State and Local Government Services (1991 ADA Title II Regulations) (2)
- Technical Assistance (4)
- Title II Technical Assistance Manual (1)
- ADA Business BRIEF: Communicating with Guests who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing in Hotels, Motels, and Other Places of Transient Lodging (1)
- Title II Technical Assistance Manual - 1994 Supplement (1)
- Withdrawn Technical Assistance: Title II Highlights (revised in 2008) (1)
- Preamble to Regulations (1)
- Regulations (3)
- Rulemaking Process Documents (3)
- NPRMS (3)
- Corada Voices (4)
- Products and Additional Resources (46)
- Webinars, Videos, and Training (102)
- Demonstrations of ADA Requirements (4)
- Design Solution (3)
- Product Demonstration or Information (54)
- Spirit of the ADA (41)
- Links (31)
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- News/Social Media (1)
- Nonprofit Organization (2)
- Federal Department or Agency (2)
- State Department or Agency (3)
- Trade Organization (1)
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- General (10)
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