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Withdrawn Technical Assistance: Title II Highlights (revised in 2008)

The Department of Justice has withdrawn and, where applicable, removed from ADA.gov, this technical assistance document. This document is outdated and does not fully reflect current law or has been replaced by a more up-to-date document. Withdrawal of a guidance document does not change covered entities' legal responsibilities, as reflected in the ADA, its implementing regulations, and other binding legal requirements and judicial precedent. The Department will continue to fully and fairly enforce all laws within its jurisdiction, including the ADA.

VI. Communications

State and local governments must ensure effective communication with individuals with disabilities.

Where necessary to ensure that communications with individuals with hearing, vision, or speech impairments are as effective as communications with others, the public entity must provide appropriate auxiliary aids.

  • "Auxiliary aids" include such services or devices as qualified interpreters, assistive listening headsets, television captioning and decoders, telecommunications devices for deaf persons (TDD's), videotext displays, readers, taped texts, Brailled materials, and large print materials.

  • A public entity may not charge an individual with a disability for the use of an auxiliary aid.

Telephone emergency services, including 911 services, must provide direct access to individuals with speech or hearing impairments.

Public entities are not required to provide auxiliary aids that would result in a fundamental alteration in the nature of a service, program, or activity or in undue financial and administrative burdens. However, public entities must still furnish another auxiliary aid, if available, that does not result in a fundamental alteration or undue burdens.


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